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Categories: BloodHematologyTissuesHidden categories: Use dmy dates from July 2012Articles containing Ancient Greek language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from May 2010Articles needing additional references from July 2011All articles needing additional referencesAll articles lacking reliable referencesArticles lacking reliable references from May 2012 "A high ratio of dietary animal to vegetable protein increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. "Equality of the in vivo and in vitro oxygen-binding capacity of haemoglobin in patients with severe respiratory disease".
"Limitations to systemic and locomotor limb muscle oxygen delivery and uptake during maximal exercise in humans". "Parasites in a biodiversity hotspot: a survey of hematozoa and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Plasmodium in New Guinea skinks". A fire burning in an enclosed room with poor ventilation presents a very dangerous hazard, since it can create a build-up of carbon monoxide in the air. A person receiving a blood transfusion must have a blood type compatible with that of the donor. A rise in the partial pressure of CO2 or a lower pH will cause offloading of oxygen from hemoglobin, which is known as the Bohr effect.
Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Although there is no ritual involving human blood in Jewish law or custom, fabrications of this nature (often involving the murder of children) were widely used during the Middle Ages to justify Antisemitic persecution. Arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to all of the cells of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism by cells, to the lungs to be exhaled. Atheroma tends to increase with age, and its progression can be compounded by many causes including smoking, high blood pressure, excess circulating lipids (hyperlipidemia), and diabetes mellitus. Blood in carbon monoxide poisoning is bright red, because carbon monoxide causes the formation of carboxyhemoglobin.
Blood is given particular emphasis in the Jewish and Christian religions because Leviticus 17:11 says "the life of a creature is in the blood. Blood pH, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), and HCO3− are carefully regulated by a number of homeostatic mechanisms, which exert their influence principally through the respiratory system and the urinary system in order to control the acid-base balance and respiration. By volume, the red blood cells constitute about 45% of whole blood, the plasma about 54. Carbon monoxide, for example, is extremely dangerous when carried to the blood via the lungs by inhalation, because carbon monoxide irreversibly binds to hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, so that less hemoglobin is free to bind oxygen, and fewer oxygen molecules can be transported throughout the blood. Characters, mostly males, will often be shown with a nosebleed if they have just seen someone nude or in little clothing, or if they have had an erotic thought or fantasy; this is based on the idea that a male's blood pressure will spike dramatically when aroused.
Consuming a high ratio of animal protein to vegetable protein is implicated in bone loss in women. Cultures all over the world have myths of this kind; for example the 'Nosferatu' legend, a human who achieves damnation and immortality by drinking the blood of others, originates from Eastern European folklore. Deoxygenated blood is a darker shade of red; this is present in veins, and can be seen during blood donation and when venous blood samples are taken. Deoxyhemoglobin binds most of the hydrogen ions as it has a much greater affinity for more hydrogen than does oxyhemoglobin. During childhood, almost every human bone produces red blood cells; as adults, red blood cell production is limited to the larger bones: the bodies of the vertebrae, the breastbone (sternum), the ribcage, the pelvic bones, and the bones of the upper arms and legs.
Each molecule has four heme groups, and their interaction with various molecules alters the exact color. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is transmitted through contact with blood, semen or other body secretions of an infected person. However, because of allosteric effects on the hemoglobin molecule, the binding of CO2 decreases the amount of oxygen that is bound for a given partial pressure of oxygen. However, bloodletting and leeching were common unvalidated interventions used until the 19th century, as many diseases were incorrectly thought to be due to an excess of blood, according to Hippocratic medicine. However, one exception includes pulmonary arteries, which contain the most deoxygenated blood in the body (which is a blue purple color), while the pulmonary veins contain oxygenated blood.
If the heme is oxidized, methaemoglobin, which is more brownish and cannot transport oxygen, is formed. In a healthy adult at rest, oxygen consumption is approximately 200 - 250 mL/min,[16] and deoxygenated blood returning to the lungs is still approximately 75%[17][18] (70 to 78%)[16] saturated. In addition, during childhood, the thymus gland, found in the mediastinum, is an important source of lymphocytes. In addition, if all human hemoglobin were free in the plasma rather than being contained in RBCs, the circulatory fluid would be too viscous for the cardiovascular system to function effectively. In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled.
In contrast, when the external temperature is low, blood flow to the extremities and surface of the skin is reduced and to prevent heat loss and is circulated to the important organs of the body, preferentially. In cyanide poisoning, the body cannot utilize oxygen, so the venous blood remains oxygenated, increasing the redness. In humans, blood is pumped from the strong left ventricle of the heart through arteries to peripheral tissues and returns to the right atrium of the heart through veins. In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen. In secret, sacred male ceremonies, blood extracted from the veins of the participant's arms is exchanged and rubbed on their bodies.
In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen. In the rare condition sulfhemoglobinemia, arterial hemoglobin is partially oxygenated, and appears dark red with a bluish hue (cyanosis). In these emergency situations, a plasma expander is a more effective life-saving procedure than a blood transfusion, because the metabolism of transfused red blood cells does not restart immediately after a transfusion. In vertebrates and other hemoglobin-using creatures, arterial blood and capillary blood are bright red, as oxygen imparts a strong red color to the heme group. Increased oxygen consumption during sustained exercise reduces the oxygen saturation of venous blood, which can reach less than 15% in a trained athlete; although breathing rate and blood flow increase to compensate, oxygen saturation in arterial blood can drop to 95% or less under these conditions.
Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. It is essentially an aqueous solution containing 92% water, 8% blood plasma proteins, and trace amounts of other materials. It is moved to the right in higher acidity (more dissolved carbon dioxide) and to the left in lower acidity (less dissolved carbon dioxide) It is thought that tunicates (sea squirts) might use vanabins (proteins containing vanadium) for respiratory pigment (bright-green, blue, or orange). It then enters the right ventricle and is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins.
Lutheran theology teaches that the body and blood is present together "in, with, and under" the bread and wine of the Eucharistic feast. Lymph is collected by a system of small lymphatic vessels and directed to the thoracic duct, which drains into the left subclavian vein where lymph rejoins the systemic blood circulation. Marc Quinn has made sculptures using frozen blood, including a cast of his own head made using his own blood. Members may personally decide whether they will accept medical procedures that involve their own blood or substances that are further fractionated from the four major components. One of the most basic is the use of blood as a symbol for family relationships through birth/parentage; to be "related by blood" is to be related by ancestry or descendance, rather than marriage.
Other terms where blood is used in a family history sense are blue-blood, royal blood, mixed-blood and blood relative. Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins), and removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[1] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Sustained hypoxia (oxygenation of less than 90%), is dangerous to health, and severe hypoxia (saturations of less than 30%) may be rapidly fatal. The Ancient Greeks believed that the blood of the gods, ichor, was a substance that was poisonous to mortals.
The Hittite word for blood, ishar was a cognate to words for "oath" and "bond", see Ishara. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes) and white blood cells, including leukocytes and platelets. The blood in the circulation of these creatures, which generally live in cold environments with low oxygen tensions, is grey-white to pale yellow,[26] and it turns dark blue when exposed to the oxygen in the air, as seen when they bleed. The blood was considered to have the power of its originator, and, after the butchering, the blood was sprinkled on the walls, on the statues of the gods, and on the participants themselves. The combined surface area of all red blood cells of the human body would be roughly 2,000 times as great as the body's exterior surface.
The decreased binding to carbon dioxide in the blood due to increased oxygen levels is known as the Haldane effect, and is important in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. The hemoglobin molecule is the primary transporter of oxygen in mammals and many other species (for exceptions, see below). The proportion of blood occupied by red blood cells is referred to as the hematocrit, and is normally about 45%. The red blood cells (together with endothelial vessel cells and other cells) are also marked by glycoproteins that define the different blood types. The term ischemia refers to tissue that is inadequately perfused with blood, and infarction refers to tissue death (necrosis), which can occur when the blood supply has been blocked (or is very inadequate)
The word is derived from Middle English, which is derived from the Old English word blôd, which is akin to the Old High German word bluot, meaning blood. There are many different blood types in humans, the ABO blood group system, and the Rhesus blood group system being the most important. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates transportation of oxygen by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. These proteins are based on vanadium, and give the creatures a concentration of vanadium in their bodies 100 times higher than the surrounding sea water. This act of sprinkling blood was called blóedsian in Old English, and the terminology was borrowed by the Roman Catholic Church becoming to bless and blessing.
This bears closely to bloodlines, and sayings such as "blood is thicker than water" and "bad blood", as well as "Blood brother". This can allow otherwise inconsequential wounds to be life-threatening, but more commonly results in hemarthrosis, or bleeding into joint spaces, which can be crippling. This fibrin creates a mesh onto which red blood cells collect and clot, which then stops more blood from leaving the body and also helps to prevent bacteria from entering the body. This has no relation to vampire bats, which are new world creatures discovered well after the origins of the European myths. This is derived from the statement in the Qur'an, sura Al-Ma'ida (5:3): "Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which has been invoked the name of other than Allah.
This often appears in Chinese-language and Hong Kong films as well as in Japanese and Korean culture parodied in anime, manga, and drama. This teaching is rooted in the Last Supper, as written in the four gospels of the Bible, in which Jesus stated to his disciples that the bread that they ate was his body, and the wine was his blood. This would rarely result in shock (apart from the very severe cases) but may result in orthostatic hypotension and fainting. Thrombocytes are important for blood coagulation and the formation of blood clots, which can stop bleeding. Through bloodstain pattern analysis, forensic information can also be gained from the spatial distribution of bloodstains.
Ticks, leeches, female mosquitoes, vampire bats, and an assortment of other natural creatures do consume the blood of other animals, but only bats are associated with vampires. Transfusion of blood of an incompatible blood group may cause severe, often fatal, complications, so crossmatching is done to ensure that a compatible blood product is transfused. Trauma to the internal organs or bones can cause internal bleeding, which can sometimes be severe. While hemoglobin-containing blood is never blue, there are several conditions and diseases wherein the color of the heme groups make the skin appear blue. " This phrase is part of the Levitical law forbidding the drinking of blood or eating meat with the blood still intact instead of being poured off.
"), Jehovah's Witnesses neither consume blood nor accept transfusions of whole blood or its major components: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets (thrombocytes), and plasma. ) at physiological concentrations, or colloidal solutions, such as dextrans, human serum albumin, or fresh frozen plasma. 03 mL O2 per liter blood per mmHg partial pressure of oxygen (approximately 100 mmHg in arteries). 3 5% – 10% is dissolved in the plasma,[22] and 5% – 10% is bound to hemoglobin as carbamino compounds[22] 3 by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells,[22] by the reaction CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO−
3 gal), composed of plasma and several kinds of cells (occasionally called corpuscles); these formed elements of the blood are erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs), leukocytes (white blood cells), and thrombocytes (platelets). 37 ml O2 per gram Hemoglobin,[14] which increases the total blood oxygen capacity seventyfold,[15] compared to if oxygen solely was carried by its solubility of 0. 4,000–11,000 Leukocytes:[7] White blood cells are part of the body's immune system; they destroy and remove old or aberrant cells and cellular debris, as well as attack infectious agents (pathogens) and foreign substances. 5% of the oxygen in a sample of arterial blood in a healthy human breathing air at sea-level pressure is chemically combined with the Hgb. A fetus, receiving oxygen via the placenta, is exposed to much lower oxygen pressures (about 21% of the level found in an adult's lungs), and, so, fetuses produce another form of hemoglobin with a much higher affinity for oxygen (hemoglobin F) in order to function under these conditions.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a normal red blood cell, a platelet, and a white blood cell. About 55% of blood is blood plasma, a fluid that is the blood's liquid medium, which by itself is straw-yellow in color. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "blood" dates to the oldest English, circa 1000 AD. Additional return flow may be generated by the movement of skeletal muscles, which can compress veins and push blood through the valves in veins toward the right atrium. After severe acute blood loss, liquid preparations, generically known as plasma expanders, can be given intravenously, either solutions of salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 etc.
Also if a person of the orthodox Jewish faith suffers a violent death, religious laws order the collection of their blood for burial with them. Among the Germanic tribes (such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norsemen), blood was used during their sacrifices; the Blóts. Another example of a hydraulic function is the jumping spider, in which blood forced into the legs under pressure causes them to straighten for a powerful jump, without the need for bulky muscular legs. Another ritual involving blood involves the covering of the blood of fowl and game after slaughtering (Leviticus 17:13); the reason given by the Torah is: "Because the life of the animal is [in] its blood" (ibid 17:14). As a relic of Germanic Law the cruentation, an ordeal where the corpse of the victim was supposed to start bleeding in the presence of the murderer was used until the early 17th.
At the Council of Jerusalem, the apostles prohibited Christians from consuming blood (except Jesus'), probably because this was a command given to Noah (Genesis 9:4, see Noahide Law). Blood accounts for 8% of the human body weight,[3] with an average density of approximately 1060 kg/m3, very close to pure water's density of 1000 kg/m3. Blood circulation transports heat throughout the body, and adjustments to this flow are an important part of thermoregulation. Blood for transfusion is obtained from human donors by blood donation and stored in a blood bank. Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. Blood is considered as unclean and in Islam cleanliness is part of the faith, hence there are specific methods to obtain physical and ritual status of cleanliness once bleeding has occurred. Blood residue can help forensic investigators identify weapons, reconstruct a criminal action, and link suspects to the crime. Bones are especially affected by blood pH as they tend to be used as a mineral source for pH buffering. Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism (blood clotting after an open wound in order to stop bleeding)
Healthy erythrocytes have a plasma life of about 120 days before they are degraded by the spleen, and the Kupffer cells in the liver. Histiocytes · Kupffer cells · Alveolar macrophage · Microglia · Osteoclasts · Epithelioid cells · giant cells (Langhans giant cells, Foreign-body giant cell, Touton giant cells) Human blood is typical of that of mammals, although the precise details concerning cell numbers, size, protein structure, and so on, vary somewhat between species. Hypercoagulable state (thrombophilia) results from defects in regulation of platelet or clotting factor function, and can cause thrombosis. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.
In Chinese popular culture, it is often said that if a man's nose produces a small flow of blood, he is experiencing sexual desire. In Hippocratic medicine, blood was considered to be one of the four humors, the others being phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. In Judaism, animal blood cannot be consumed even in the smallest quantity (Leviticus 3:17 and elsewhere); this is reflected in Jewish dietary laws (Kashrut). In classical Greek medicine, blood was associated with air, with Springtime, and with a merry and gluttonous (sanguine) personality. In insects, the blood (more properly called hemolymph) is not involved in the transport of oxygen.
In mammals, blood is in equilibrium with lymph, which is continuously formed in tissues from blood by capillary ultrafiltration. In many Aboriginal rituals and ceremonies, red ochre is rubbed all over the naked bodies of the dancers. In many indigenous Australian Aboriginal peoples' traditions, ochre (particularly red) and blood, both high in iron content and considered Maban, are applied to the bodies of dancers for ritual. In many invertebrates, these oxygen-carrying proteins are freely soluble in the blood; in vertebrates they are contained in specialized red blood cells, allowing for a higher concentration of respiratory pigments without increasing viscosity or damaging blood filtering organs like the kidneys. In modern evidence-based medicine, bloodletting is used in management of a few rare diseases, including hemochromatosis and polycythemia.
In vertebrates, the various cells of blood are made in the bone marrow in a process called hematopoiesis, which includes erythropoiesis, the production of red blood cells; and myelopoiesis, the production of white blood cells and platelets. Insufficient red cell mass (anemia) can be the result of bleeding, blood disorders like thalassemia, or nutritional deficiencies; and may require blood transfusion. It is also found in the Bible that when the Angel of Death came around to the Hebrew house that the first born child would not die if the angel saw lambs blood wiped across the doorway. Lawlor comments that blood employed in this fashion is held by these peoples to attune the dancers to the invisible energetic realm of the Dreamtime. Lymph trunk (Subclavian lymph trunk • Jugular lymph trunk  • Bronchomediastinal lymph trunk • Intestinal lymph trunk → Cisterna chyli • Lumbar lymph trunk → Cisterna chyli) → Lymph duct {Right lymphatic duct and Thoracic duct (left side)} →
Many forms of medication (from antibiotics to chemotherapy) are administered intravenously, as they are not readily or adequately absorbed by the digestive tract. Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo- or hemato- (also spelled haemo- and haemato-) from the Greek word αἷμα (haima) for "blood". Most forms of Protestantism, especially those of a Wesleyan or Presbyterian lineage, teach that the wine is no more than a symbol of the blood of Christ, who is spiritually but not physically present. Mythic references to blood can sometimes be connected to the life-giving nature of blood, seen in such events as childbirth, as contrasted with the blood of injury or death. Platelets are unique to mammals; in other vertebrates, small nucleated, spindle cells are responsible for blood clotting instead
Problems with blood composition, the pumping action of the heart, or narrowing of blood vessels can have many consequences including hypoxia (lack of oxygen) of the tissues supplied. Red blood cells of non-mammalian vertebrates are flattened and ovoid in form, and retain their cell nuclei Shock is the ineffective perfusion of tissues, and can be caused by a variety of conditions including blood loss, infection, poor cardiac output. Skinks in the genus Prasinohaema have green blood due to a buildup of the waste product biliverdin. Some Christian churches, including Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and the Assyrian Church of the East teach that, when consecrated, the Eucharistic wine actually becomes the blood of Jesus for worshippers to drink.
Substances other than oxygen can bind to hemoglobin; in some cases this can cause irreversible damage to the body. Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e. The blood of most mollusks – including cephalopods and gastropods – as well as some arthropods, such as horseshoe crabs, is blue, as it contains the copper-containing protein hemocyanin at concentrations of about 50 grams per liter. The blood of some species of ascidians and tunicates, also known as sea squirts and sea cucumbers, contains proteins called vanabins. The restriction of blood flow can also be used in specialized tissues to cause engorgement, resulting in an erection of that tissue; examples are the erectile tissue in the penis and clitoris.
The term, blood, is used in genealogical circles to refer to one's ancestry, origins, and ethnic background, as in the word, bloodline. There is considerable variation in the types and proportions of white blood cells; for example, acidophils are generally more common than in humans Under normal conditions in adult humans at rest; hemoglobin in blood leaving the lungs is about 98–99% saturated with oxygen, achieving an oxygen delivery of between 950 - 1150 mL/min[16] to the body. Vampires are mythical creatures that drink blood directly for sustenance, usually with a preference for human blood. Various religious and other groups have been falsely accused of using human blood in rituals; such accusations are known as blood libel.
Veins in the skin appear blue for a variety of reasons only weakly dependent on the color of the blood. Whole blood (plasma and cells) exhibits non-Newtonian fluid dynamics; its flow properties are adapted to flow effectively through tiny capillary blood vessels with less resistance than plasma by itself. With the exception of pulmonary and umbilical arteries and their corresponding veins, arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and deliver it to the body via arterioles and capillaries, where the oxygen is consumed; afterwards, venules, and veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. [13] The proteinaceous component of blood (including clotting proteins) is produced predominantly by the liver, while hormones are produced by the endocrine glands and the watery fraction is regulated by the hypothalamus and maintained by the kidney. [19] Oxygen saturation this low is considered dangerous in an individual at rest (for instance, during surgery under anesthesia.
[26] Hemocyanin carries oxygen in extracellular fluid, which is in contrast to the intracellular oxygen transport in mammals by hemoglobin in RBCs. [27] A healthy adult can lose almost 20% of blood volume (1 L) before the first symptom, restlessness, begins, and 40% of volume (2 L) before shock sets in. [31] In particular, the performances of Viennese Actionist Hermann Nitsch, Franko B, Lennie Lee, Ron Athey, Yang Zhichao, and Kira O' Reilly, along with the photography of Andres Serrano, have incorporated blood as a prominent visual element. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. ” (1 John 1:7), “… Unto him [God] that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood.
” (Revelation 1:5), and “And they overcame him (Satan) by the blood of the Lamb [Jesus the Christ], and by the word of their testimony …” (Revelation 12:11).