About stock trades online - stock_trades_online
A business may declare different types (classes) of shares, each having distinctive ownership rules, privileges, or share values.
A company may list its shares on an exchange by meeting and maintaining the listing requirements of a particular stock exchange.
A device that is offline uses no external clock reference and relies upon its own internal clock.
A direct public offering is an initial public offering in which the stock is purchased directly from the company, usually without the aid of brokers.
A keen investor with access to information about such discrepancies may invest in expectation of their eventual convergence, known as arbitrage trading.
A recent study shows that customer satisfaction, as measured by the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), is significantly correlated to the market value of a stock.
A stock certificate is a legal document that specifies the amount of shares owned by the shareholder, and other specifics of the shares, such as the par value, if any, or the class of the shares.
A tape recorder, digital audio editor, or other device that is online is one whose clock is under the control of the clock of a synchronization master device.
According to Behavioral Finance, humans often make irrational decisions—particularly, related to the buying and selling of securities—based upon fears and misperceptions of outcomes.
Alternatively, debt financing (for example issuing bonds) can be done to avoid giving up shares of ownership of the company.
Another illustrates "the off-line store" where "All items are actual size!" shoppers may "Take it home as soon as you pay for it!" and "Merchandise may be handled prior to purchase!"
Another type of broker would be a bank or credit union that may have a deal set up with either a full-service or discount broker.
Another way to buy stock in companies is through Direct Public Offerings which are usually sold by the company itself.
As a unit of ownership, common stock typically carries voting rights that can be exercised in corporate decisions.
Before adoption of the joint-stock corporation, an expensive venture such as the building of a merchant ship could be undertaken only by governments or by very wealthy individuals or families.
Board candidates are usually nominated by insiders or by the board of the directors themselves, and a considerable amount of stock is held or voted by insiders.
Briefly, EMH says that investing is overall (weighted by the standard deviation) rational; that the price of a stock at any given moment represents a rational evaluation of the known information that might bear on the future value of the company; and that share prices of equities are priced efficiently, which is to say that they represent accurately the expected value of the stock, as best it can be known at a given moment.
Brokerage firms, whether they are a full-service or discount broker, arrange the transfer of stock from a seller to a buyer.
Buying on margin works the same way as borrowing money to buy a car or a house, using a car or house as collateral.
Buying stock on margin means buying stock with money borrowed against the value of stocks in the same account.
Each shareholder typically has a percentage of votes equal to the percentage of shares he or she owns.
Edward Stringham also noted that the uses of practices such as short selling continued to occur during this time despite the government passing laws against it.
Electronic trading has resulted in extensive price transparency (efficient-market hypothesis) and these discrepancies, if they exist, are short-lived and quickly equilibrated.
Eventually, sellers attracted to the high selling price enter the market and/or buyers leave, achieving equilibrium between buyers and sellers.
First, because financial risk is presumed to require at least a small premium on expected value, the return on equity can be expected to be slightly greater than that available from non-equity investments: if not, the same rational calculations would lead equity investors to shift to these safer non-equity investments that could be expected to give the same or better return at lower risk.
For example, discussions taking place during a business meeting are "online", while issues that do not concern all participants of the meeting should be "taken offline" — continued outside of the meeting.
For example, in California, USA, majority shareholders of closely held corporations have a duty to not destroy the value of the shares held by minority shareholders.
For instance, during the technology bubble of the late 1990s (which was followed by the dot-com bust of 2000–2002), technology companies were often bid beyond any rational fundamental value because of what is commonly known as the "greater fool theory".
Generally, the investor wants to buy low and sell high, if not in that order (short selling); although a number of reasons may induce an investor to sell at a loss, e.
Given the total amount of money invested in the business, a share has a certain declared face value, commonly known as the par value of a share.
He also argues that even the telephone can be regarded as an online experience in some circumstances, and that the blurring of the distinctions between the uses of various technologies (such as PDA and mobile phone, internet television and Internet, and telephone and Voice over Internet Protocol) has made it "impossible to use the term on-line meaningfully in the sense that was employed by the first generation of Internet research".
He also conjectures that an online/offline distinction may be seen by people as "rather quaint and not quite comprehensible" within 10 years.
He can sell if the share price drops below the margin requirement, at least 50% of the value of the stocks in the account.
He conjectures that greater legal status may be assigned to online relationships (pointing out that contractual relationships, such as business transactions, online are already seen as just as "real" as their offline counterparts), although he states it to be hard to imagine courts awarding palimony to people who have had a purely online sexual relationship.
However, all money obtained by converting assets into cash will be used to repay loans and other debts first, so that shareholders cannot receive any money unless and until creditors have been paid (often the shareholders end up with nothing).
However, shareholder's rights to a company's assets are subordinate to the rights of the company's creditors.
However, the initial share of stock in the company will have to be obtained through a regular stock broker.
If a company goes broke and has to default on loans, the shareholders are not liable in any way.
If at least one share is owned, most companies will allow the purchase of shares directly from the company through their investor relations departments.
If more investors are selling a stock and there aren't enough buyers, the price will go down.
If more investors want a stock and are willing to pay more, the price will go up.
Importantly, on selling the stock, in jurisdictions that have them, capital gains taxes will have to be paid on the additional proceeds, if any, that are in excess of the cost basis.
In Internet Explorer version 6, the level of direct and indirect links, the maximum amount of local disc space allowed to be consumed, and the schedule on which local copies are checked to see whether they are up-to-date, are configurable for each individual Favourites entry.
In professional investment circles the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) continues to be popular, although this theory is widely discredited in academic and professional circles.
In recent years it has come to be accepted that the share markets are not perfectly efficient, perhaps especially in emerging markets or other markets that are not dominated by well-informed professional investors.
In the United States, through the intermarket trading system, stocks listed on one exchange can often also be traded on other participating exchanges, including electronic communication networks (ECNs), such as Archipelago or Instinet.
In the offline state, users can perform offline browsing, where pages can be browsed using local copies of those pages that have previously been downloaded while in the on-line state.
In this way the original owners of the company often still have control of the company.
Instead, there are both "communities of interest" and "conflicts of interest" between stockholders (principal) and management (agent).
Internet Explorer will download to local copies both the marked page and, optionally, all of the pages that it links to.
It serves as a security for the creditors of a business since it cannot be withdrawn to the detriment of the creditors.
It was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India.
It would be naive to think that any management would forego management compensation, and management entrenchment, just because some of these management privileges might be perceived as giving rise to a conflict of interest with OPMIs.
Most jurisdictions have established laws and regulations governing such transfers, particularly if the issuer is a publicly traded entity.
Numerous organizations have developed, or are developing, flash memory chips with collections of educational materials for off-line use in smartphones, tablets, and laptops.
Often, new issues that have not been registered with a securities governing body may be restricted from resale for certain periods of time.
On this basis, the holding bank establishes American depositary shares and issues an American depositary receipt (ADR) for each share a trader acquires.
One includes Saint Peter asking for a username and a password before admitting a man into Heaven.
One such web browser capable of being explicitly configured to download pages for offline browsing is Internet Explorer.
Owning the majority of the shares allows other shareholders to be out-voted – effective control rests with the majority shareholder (or shareholders acting in concert).
Preferred stock differs from common stock in that it typically does not carry voting rights but is legally entitled to receive a certain level of dividend payments before any dividends can be issued to other shareholders.
Professional equity investors therefore immerse themselves in the flow of fundamental information, seeking to gain an advantage over their competitors (mainly other professional investors) by more intelligently interpreting the emerging flow of information (news).
Second, because the price of a share at every given moment is an "efficient" reflection of expected value, then—relative to the curve of expected return—prices will tend to follow a random walk, determined by the emergence of information (randomly) over time.
Shares in publicani were called "socii" (for large cooperatives) and "particulae" which were analogous to today's Over-The-Counter shares of small companies.
Shares of companies in bankruptcy proceeding are usually listed by these quotation services after the stock is delisted from an exchange.
Shares of such stock are called "convertible preferred shares" (or "convertible preference shares" in the UK)
Similarly, a computer may be configured to employ a dial-up connection on demand (as when an application such as Outlook attempts to make connection to a server), but the user may not wish for Outlook to trigger that call whenever it is configured to check for mail.
So as long as the shareholders agree that the management (agent) are performing poorly they can elect a new board of directors which can then hire a new management team.
Some shares of common stock may be issued without the typical voting rights, for instance, or some shares may have special rights unique to them and issued only to certain parties.
Specifically, a call option is the right (not obligation) to buy stock in the future at a fixed price and a put option is the right (not obligation) to sell stock in the future at a fixed price.
Stock is different from the property and the assets of a business which may fluctuate in quantity and value.
Stringham argues that this shows that contracts can be created and enforced without state sanction or, in this case, in spite of laws to the contrary.
That is, the computer itself may be online—connected to Internet via a cable modem or other means—while Outlook is kept offline by the user, so that it makes no attempt to send or to receive messages.
The "greater fool theory" holds that, because the predominant method of realizing returns in equity is from the sale to another investor, one should select securities that they believe that someone else will value at a higher level at some point in the future, without regard to the basis for that other party's willingness to pay a higher price.
The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created Honourable East India Company (HEIC) a 15-year monopoly on all trade in the East Indies.
The demand is the number of shares investors wish to buy at exactly that same time.
The distinction between what is considered online and what is considered offline has become a subject of study in the field of sociology.
The fields of fundamental analysis and technical analysis attempt to understand market conditions that lead to price changes, or even predict future price levels.
The full service brokers usually charge more per trade, but give investment advice or more personal service; the discount brokers offer little or no investment advice but charge less for trades.
The irrational trading of securities can often create securities prices which vary from rational, fundamental price valuations.
The major OTC markets in the United States are the electronic quotation systems OTC Bulletin Board (OTCBB) and OTC Markets Group where individual retail investors are also represented by a brokerage firm and the quotation service's requirements for a company to be listed are minimal.
The online or offline state of the MUA does not necessarily reflect the connection status between the computer on which it is running and the Internet.
The pages are downloaded either implicitly into the web browser's own cache as a result of prior online browsing by the user or explicitly by a browser configured to keep local copies of certain web pages, which are updated when the browser is in the online state, either by checking that the local copies are up-to-date at regular intervals or by checking that the local copies are up-to-date whenever the browser is switched to the on-line state.
The par value is the de minimis (minimum) amount of money that a business may issue and sell shares for in many jurisdictions and it is the value represented as capital in the accounting of the business.
The product of this instantaneous price and the float at any one time is the market capitalization of the entity offering the equity at that point in time.
The purchase of one share entitles the owner of that share to literally share in the ownership of the company, a fraction of the decision-making power, and potentially a fraction of the profits, which the company may issue as dividends.
The supply, commonly referred to as the float, is the number of shares offered for sale at any one moment.
The technique of pooling capital to finance the building of ships, for example, made the Netherlands a maritime superpower.
These companies must maintain a block of shares at a bank in the US, typically a certain percentage of their capital.
These stocks, or collateral, guarantee that the buyer can repay the loan; otherwise, the stockbroker has the right to sell the stock (collateral) to repay the borrowed money.
They also have preference in the payment of dividends over common stock and also have been given preference at the time of liquidation over common stock.
They can achieve these goals by selling shares in the company to the general public, through a sale on a stock exchange.
They may also simply wish to reduce their holding, freeing up capital for their own private use.
This can be useful when the computer is offline and connection to the Internet is impossible or undesirable.
This fee can be high or low depending on which type of brokerage, full service or discount, handles the transaction.
This is because the company is considered a legal person, thus it owns all its assets itself.
This is important in areas such as insurance, which must be in the name of the company and not the main shareholder.
This is unusual because it shows individual parties fulfilling contracts that were not legally enforceable and where the parties involved could incur a loss.
Though the records available for this time are incomplete, Edward Chancellor states in his book Devil Take the Hindmost that there is some evidence that a speculation in these shares became increasingly widespread and that perhaps the first ever speculative bubble in "stocks" occurred.
Thus it might be common to call volunteer contributors to an association stakeholders, even though they are not shareholders.
Thus, the shareholders will use their shares as votes in the election of members of the board of directors of the company.
Thus, the value of a stock option changes in reaction to the underlying stock of which it is a derivative.
Today, stock traders are usually represented by a stockbroker who buys and sells shares of a wide range of companies on such exchanges.
Unofficial financing known as trade financing usually provides the major part of a company's working capital (day-to-day operational needs).
When a large number of devices are connected to a sync master it is often convenient, if one wants to hear just the output of one single device, to take it offline because, if the device is played back online, all synchronized devices have to locate the playback point and wait for each other device to be in synchronization.
When online it will attempt to connect to mail servers (to check for new mail at regular intervals, for example), and when offline it will not attempt to make any such connection.
When pages are added to the Favourites list, they can be marked to be "available for offline browsing".
When the sync master commences playback, the online device automatically synchronizes itself to the master and commences playing from the same point in the recording.
exchange as well as an exchange in their home country in order to broaden their investor base.
This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C" (in support of MIL-STD-188).
, takes on the obligation to buy on the contract maturity date, and the seller is short, i.
A shareholder (or stockholder) is an individual or company (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a joint stock company.
A stock derivative is any financial instrument which has a value that is dependent on the price of the underlying stock.
A third example of a common use of these concepts is a web browser that can be instructed to be in either online or offline states.
After the transaction has been made, the seller is then entitled to all of the money.
Although directors and officers of a company are bound by fiduciary duties to act in the best interest of the shareholders, the shareholders themselves normally do not have such duties towards each other.
Although ownership of 50% of shares does result in 50% ownership of a company, it does not give the shareholder the right to use a company's building, equipment, materials, or other property.
Around 1250 in France at Toulouse, 96 shares of the Société des Moulins du Bazacle, or Bazacle Milling Company were traded at a value that depended on the profitability of the mills the society owned.
As with buying a stock, there is a transaction fee for the broker's efforts in arranging the transfer of stock from a seller to a buyer.
During Roman times, the empire contracted out many of its services to private groups called publicani.
Economic historians find the Dutch stock market of the 17th century particularly interesting: there is clear documentation of the use of stock futures, stock options, short selling, the use of credit to purchase shares, a speculative bubble that crashed in 1695, and a change in fashion that unfolded and reverted in time with the market (in this case it was headdresses instead of hemlines).
Even though the board of directors runs the company, the shareholder has some impact on the company's policy, as the shareholders elect the board of directors.
Financing a company through the sale of stock in a company is known as equity financing.
For "capital stock" in the sense of the fixed input of a production function, see Physical capital.
For communities that lack adequate Internet connectivity -- like developing countries, rural areas, and prisons -- off-line information stores like the eGranary Digital Library (a collection of approximately 30 million educational resources from more than 2,000 Web sites and hundreds of CD-ROMs) provide off-line access to information.
However, in a few unusual cases, some courts have been willing to imply such a duty between shareholders.
In general, the shares of a company may be transferred from shareholders to other parties by sale or other mechanisms, unless prohibited.
In most countries, boards of directors and company managers have a fiduciary responsibility to run the company in the interests of its stockholders.
In the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, South Africa, and Australia, stock can also refer to completely different financial instruments such as government bonds or, less commonly, to all kinds of marketable securities.
In the common case of a publicly traded corporation, where there may be thousands of shareholders, it is impractical to have all of them making the daily decisions required to run a company.
Likewise, offline storage is computer data storage that is not "available for immediate use on demand by the system without human intervention.
New equity issues may have specific legal clauses attached that differentiate them from previous issues of the issuer.
Note: "For Nasdaq-listed stocks, the price quote includes information on the bid and ask prices for the stock.
Of course, that does not explain how people decide the maximum price at which they are willing to buy or the minimum at which they are willing to sell.
One example of a common use of these concepts is a mail user agent that can be instructed to be in either online or offline states.
Online and offline distinctions have been generalized from computing and telecommunication into the field of human interpersonal relationships.
Preferred stock may be hybrid by having the qualities of bonds of fixed returns and common stock voting rights.
Shareholders are considered by some to be a partial subset of stakeholders, which may include anyone who has a direct or indirect equity interest in the business entity or someone with even a non-pecuniary interest in a non-profit organization.
Shareholders are granted special privileges depending on the class of stock, including the right to vote on matters such as elections to the board of directors, the right to share in distributions of the company's income, the right to purchase new shares issued by the company, and the right to a company's assets during a liquidation of the company.
Slater asserts that there are legal and regulatory pressures to reduce the distinction between online and offline, with a "general tendency to assimilate online to offline and erase the distinction," stressing, however, that this does not mean that online relationships are being reduced to pre-existing offline relationships.
Small companies that do not qualify and cannot meet the listing requirements of the major exchanges may be traded over-the-counter (OTC) by an off-exchange mechanism in which trading occurs directly between parties.
Soon afterwards, in 1602, the Dutch East India Company issued shares that were made tradeable on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, an invention that enhanced the ability of joint-stock companies to attract capital from investors as they now easily could dispose of their shares.
The EMH model does not seem to give a complete description of the process of equity price determination.
The capital stock (or stock) of a business entity represents the original capital paid into or invested in the business by its founders.
The concepts have however been extended from their computing and telecommunication meanings into the area of human interaction and conversation, such that even offline can be used in contrast to the common usage of online.
The desire of stockholders to trade their shares has led to the establishment of stock exchanges, organizations which provide marketplaces for trading shares and other derivatives and financial products.
The distinction between online and offline is conventionally seen as the distinction between computer-mediated communication and face-to-face communication (e.
The earliest recognized joint-stock company in modern times was the English (later British) East India Company, one of the most famous joint-stock companies.
The innovation of joint ownership made a great deal of Europe's economic growth possible following the Middle Ages.
The largest shareholders (in terms of percentages of companies owned) are often mutual funds, and, especially, passively managed exchange-traded funds.
The oldest share in the world, issued by the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC), 1606.
The owners of a private company may want additional capital to invest in new projects within the company.
The stock of a business is divided into multiple shares, the total of which must be stated at the time of business formation.
The terms "online" and "offline" (also stylized as "on-line" and "off-line") have specific meanings in regard to computer technology and telecommunications.
There are many different brokerage firms from which to choose, such as full service brokers or discount brokers.
There are various methods of buying and financing stocks, the most common being through a stockbroker.
This distinction between online and offline is sometimes inverted, with online concepts being used to define and to explain offline activities, rather than (as per the conventions of the desktop metaphor with its desktops, trash cans, folders, and so forth) the other way around.
Thus, the value of a share of a company at any given moment is determined by all investors voting with their money.
When companies raise capital by offering stock on more than one exchange, the potential exists for discrepancies in the valuation of shares on different exchanges.
When it comes to financing a purchase of stocks there are two ways: purchasing stock with money that is currently in the buyer's ownership, or by buying stock on margin.
 Stock price may be influenced by analyst's business forecast for the company and outlooks for the company's general market segment.
 Traditionalist demands for the plural stocks to be used only when referring to stocks of more than one company are rarely heard nowadays.
 Convertible preferred stock is preferred stock that includes an option for the holder to convert the preferred shares into a fixed number of common shares, usually any time after a predetermined date.
 The Swedish company Stora has documented a stock transfer for 1/8 of the company (or more specifically, the mountain in which the copper resource was available) as early as 1288.
 The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that virtually ruled India as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its dissolution.
 To support his argument that the distinctions in relationships are more complex than a simple online/offline dichotomy, he observes that some people draw no distinction between an on-line relationship, such as indulging in cybersex, and an offline relationship, such as being pen pals.
it can safely be stated that there does not exist any publicly traded company where management works exclusively in the best interests of OPMI [Outside Passive Minority Investor] stockholders.