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Categories: MarriageTerms for malesInterpersonal relationshipsDatingHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from November 2008All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2008Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009 "The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: A meta-analysis". A device that is offline uses no external clock reference and relies upon its own internal clock. A discursive strain of critical psychology[91] was developed in the 1990s by Jonathan Potter and Derek Edwards. A number of influential studies led to the establishment of this rule; such studies included the MIT and Fernald School radioisotope studies, the Thalidomide tragedy, the Willowbrook hepatitis study, and Stanley Milgram's studies of obedience to authority.
A tape recorder, digital audio editor, or other device that is online is one whose clock is under the control of the clock of a synchronization master device. A true experiment with random allocation of subjects to conditions allows researchers to infer causal relationships between different aspects of behavior and the environment. According to Freud, personality is based on the dynamic interactions of the id, ego, and super-ego. Additionally, psychologists make extensive use of the three modes of inference that were identified by C. After World War II, the Nuremberg Code was established because of Nazi abuses of experimental subjects.
All of these measures encouraged researchers to obtain informed consent from human participants in experimental studies. Although Wundt, himself, was not a structuralist, his student Edward Titchener, a major figure in early American psychology, was a structuralist thinker opposed to functionalist approaches. An early model proposed by Hans Eysenck suggested that there are three traits that comprise human personality: extraversion–introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. Another illustrates "the off-line store" where "All items are actual size!" shoppers may "Take it home as soon as you pay for it!" and "Merchandise may be handled prior to purchase!"[9][10] As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.
Because of this benefit, longitudinal studies make observing changes more accurate and they are applied in various other fields. Behavioral patterns, then, were understood to consist of organisms' conditioned responses to the stimuli in their environment. Being separated from the subject, the confederate set up a tape recorder integrated with the electro-shock generator, which played pre-recorded sounds for each shock level etc. Booth wrote that, "Harry Harlow and his colleagues go on torturing their nonhuman primates decade after decade, invariably proving what we all knew in advance—that social creatures can be destroyed by destroying their social ties. Burt, The Literary 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Novelists, Playwrights, and Poets of All Time, Revised Edition (New York: Facts on File, Inc.
By focusing on the evolution of psychological traits and their adaptive functions, it offers complementary explanations for the mostly proximate or developmental explanations developed by other areas of psychology (that is, it focuses mostly on ultimate or "why?" questions, rather than proximate or "how?" questions). By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities had become scientifically oriented, marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact. Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists may also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration. Classical cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by functionalism and experimental psychology. Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.
Cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychiatry study neurological or mental impairment in an attempt to infer theories of normal mind and brain function. Cognitive psychology was subsumed along with other disciplines, such as philosophy of mind, computer science, and neuroscience, under the cover discipline of cognitive science. Computational models provide a tool for studying the functional organization of the mind whereas neuroscience provides measures of brain activity. Cook, The Great Alternatives of Social Thought: Aristocrat, Saint, Capitalist, Socialist (Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Creswell (2003) identifies five main possibilities for qualitative research, including narrative, phenomenology, ethnography, case study, and grounded theory.
Current ethical guidelines state that using non-human animals for scientific purposes is only acceptable when the harm (physical or psychological) done to animals is outweighed by the benefits of the research. Different from clinical psychology, positive psychology is concerned with improving the mental well-being of healthy clients. Dimensional models of personality are receiving increasing support, and some version of dimensional assessment will be included in the forthcoming DSM-V. Discursive psychology examines how psychological phenomena are created, made relevant, and put to use in discourse, verbal interaction, and everyday talk. Educational psychology is often included in teacher education programs in places such as North America, Australia, and New Zealand.
Elements of behaviorism and cognitive psychology were synthesized to form the basis of cognitive behavioral therapy, a form of psychotherapy modified from techniques developed by American psychologist Albert Ellis and American psychiatrist Aaron T. Experimenters use several types of measurements, including rate of response, reaction time, and various psychometric measurements. Experiments are one of the primary research methods in many areas of psychology, particularly cognitive/psychonomics, mathematical psychology, psychophysiology and biological psychology/cognitive neuroscience. Fanelli argues that this is because researchers in "softer" sciences have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases. For example, discussions taking place during a business meeting are "online", while issues that do not concern all participants of the meeting should be "taken offline" — continued outside of the meeting.
For example, evolutionary psychologists attempt to explain psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. For example, physiological psychologists use animal models, typically rats, to study the neural, genetic, and cellular mechanisms that underlie specific behaviors such as learning and memory and fear responses. From the 14th century, the term was also used for a junior member of a guild (otherwise known as "yeomen") or university; hence, an ecclesiastic of an inferior grade, for example, a young monk or even recently appointed canon (Severtius, de episcopis Lugdunen-sibus, p. Gage survived an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and is remembered for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior. Harlow also devised what he called a "rape rack", to which the female isolates were tied in normal monkey mating posture.
He also argues that even the telephone can be regarded as an online experience in some circumstances, and that the blurring of the distinctions between the uses of various technologies (such as PDA and mobile phone, internet television and Internet, and telephone and Voice over Internet Protocol) has made it "impossible to use the term on-line meaningfully in the sense that was employed by the first generation of Internet research". He also conjectures that an online/offline distinction may be seen by people as "rather quaint and not quite comprehensible" within 10 years. He conjectures that greater legal status may be assigned to online relationships (pointing out that contractual relationships, such as business transactions, online are already seen as just as "real" as their offline counterparts), although he states it to be hard to imagine courts awarding palimony to people who have had a purely online sexual relationship. Hebb used experimental methods to link psychological phenomena with the structure and function of the brain. His next sentence is, "His most recent outrage consists of placing monkeys in 'solitary' for twenty days—what he calls a 'vertical chamber apparatus .
Historians point to the writings of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise),[14] as the first significant body of work in the West to be rich in psychological thought. Ideally, controlled experiments introduce only one independent variable at a time, in order to ascertain its unique effects upon dependent variables. In 19th century American slang to bach was used as a verb meaning "to live as an unmarried man". In 2010 Clinical Psychological Review published a special issue devoted to positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude journaling and the physical expression of gratitude. In Internet Explorer version 6, the level of direct and indirect links, the maximum amount of local disc space allowed to be consumed, and the schedule on which local copies are checked to see whether they are up-to-date, are configurable for each individual Favourites entry.
In addition to studying children, developmental psychologists also study aging and processes throughout the life span, especially at other times of rapid change (such as adolescence and old age). In addition, depending on the country, state or region, psychological services and the title "psychologist" may be governed by statute and psychologists who offer services to the public are usually required to be licensed. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. In an experiment, one or more variables of interest are controlled by the experimenter (independent variable) and another variable is measured in response to different conditions (dependent variable). In contrast, human environments and genetic backgrounds vary so widely, and depend upon so many factors, that it is difficult to control important variables for human subjects.
In his book, Principles of Psychology,[18] published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. In recent years, many social psychologists have become increasingly interested in implicit measures, mediational models, and the interaction of both person and social variables in accounting for behavior. In the offline state, users can perform offline browsing, where pages can be browsed using local copies of those pages that have previously been downloaded while in the on-line state. In this sense the word baccalarius or baccalaureus first appears at the University of Paris in the 13th century, in the system of degrees established under the auspices of Pope Gregory IX, as applied to scholars still in statu pupillari. Indeed, cognitive-behavioral therapists counsel their clients to become aware of maladaptive thought patterns, the nature of which the clients previously had not been conscious.
Internet Explorer will download to local copies both the marked page and, optionally, all of the pages that it links to. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. It measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience. It posited that behavioral tendencies are determined by immediate associations between various environmental stimuli and the degree of pleasure or pain that follows. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations, that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection.
I–O psychology's other subfield, organizational psychology, examines the effects of work environments and management styles on worker motivation, job satisfaction, and productivity. James felt that psychology should have practical value, and that psychologists should find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit. Key elements within critical psychology include the study of power relations, situated knowledge, and the dualisms of the self and the agency, and the individual and the social. Kidder, The Intellectual Devotional Biographies: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your Education, and Acquiant Yourself with the World's Greatest Personalities (New York: Rodale, Inc. Knights bachelor were either poor vassals who could not afford to take the field under their own banner, or knights too young to support the responsibility and dignity of knights banneret.
Known as the "father of experimental psychology",[17] he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings. Modeling also allows psychologists to visualize hypotheses about the functional organization of mental events that couldn't be directly observed in a human. Modern Dogma and the Rhetoric of Assent, Volume 5, of University of Notre Dame, Ward-Phillips lectures in English language and literature, University of Chicago Press, 1974, p. Much research consisted of laboratory-based animal experimentation, which was increasing in popularity as physiology grew more sophisticated.
Numerous organizations have developed, or are developing, flash memory chips with collections of educational materials for off-line use in smartphones, tablets, and laptops. Of course, there are pitfalls in generalizing findings from animal studies to humans through animal models. One includes Saint Peter asking for a username and a password before admitting a man into Heaven. One of critical psychology's main objections to conventional psychology is that it ignores the way power differences between social classes and groups can affect the mental and physical well-being of individuals or groups of people. One such web browser capable of being explicitly configured to download pages for offline browsing is Internet Explorer.
Other concepts that psychologists are interested in, such as personality, thinking, and emotion, cannot be directly measured[70] and are often inferred from subjective self-reports, which may be problematic. Personnel psychology, a subfield of I–O psychology, applies the methods and principles of psychology in selecting and evaluating workers. Philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn's 1962 critique[69] implied psychology overall was in a pre-paradigm state, lacking the agreement on overarching theory found in mature sciences such as chemistry and physics. Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,[26] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. Positive psychological interventions have been limited in scope, but their effects are thought to be superior to that of placebos, especially with regard to helping people with body image problems.
Positive psychology is a discipline that utilizes evidence-based scientific methods to study factors that contribute to human happiness and strength. Psychological researchers seek the emergence of theoretically interesting categories and hypotheses from data, using qualitative or quantitative methods (or both). Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists often use the crossover design to reduce the influence of confounding covariates and to reduce the number of subjects. Psychology has been described as a "hub science",[8] with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy.
Qualitative research is descriptive research that is focused on observing and describing events as they occur, with the goal of capturing all of the richness of everyday behavior and with the hope of discovering and understanding phenomena that might have been missed if only more cursory examinations have been made. Qualitative researchers[63] sometimes aim to enrich interpretations or critiques of symbols, subjective experiences, or social structures. Rather than breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest element, the Gestalt position maintains that the whole of experience is important, and the whole is different than the sum of its parts. Research in cognition had proven practical since World War II, when it aided in the understanding of weapons operation. Research in this area addresses many different issues, uses many different methods, and explores the behavior of many different species, from insects to primates.
Researchers in psychology must gain approval of their research projects before conducting any experiment to protect the interests of human participants and laboratory animals. Researchers who study children use a number of unique research methods to make observations in natural settings or to engage them in experimental tasks. School psychologists are trained in educational and behavioral assessment, intervention, prevention, and consultation, and many have extensive training in research. Similar hermeneutic and critical aims have also been served by "quantitative methods", as in Erich Fromm's study of Nazi voting[citation needed] or Stanley Milgram's studies of obedience to authority. Similarly, a computer may be configured to employ a dial-up connection on demand (as when an application such as Outlook attempts to make connection to a server), but the user may not wish for Outlook to trigger that call whenever it is configured to check for mail.
Since modern computers process information extremely quickly, many simulations can be run in a short time, allowing for a great deal of statistical power. Social cognition fuses elements of social and cognitive psychology in order to understand how people process, remember, or distort social information. Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[9] such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic analysis and other aspects of law. Some of the sociological concepts applied to psychiatric disorders are the social role, sick role, social class, life event, culture, migration, social, and total institution. Sometimes the participants are aware they are being observed, and other times the participants do not know they are being observed.
Statistical methods include the Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient, the analysis of variance, multiple linear regression, logistic regression, structural equation modeling, and hierarchical linear modeling. Such tasks often resemble specially designed games and activities that are both enjoyable for the child and scientifically useful, and researchers have even devised clever methods to study the mental processes of infants. That is, the computer itself may be online—connected to Internet via a cable modem or other means—while Outlook is kept offline by the user, so that it makes no attempt to send or to receive messages. The Old French term crossed into English around 1300, referring to one belonging to the lowest stage of knighthood. The article gave examples of results that differ significantly between WEIRD subjects and tribal cultures, including the Müller-Lyer illusion.
The distinction between what is considered online and what is considered offline has become a subject of study in the field of sociology. The humanistic approach was distinguished by its emphasis on subjective meaning, rejection of determinism, and concern for positive growth rather than pathology. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. The online or offline state of the MUA does not necessarily reflect the connection status between the computer on which it is running and the Internet. The pages are downloaded either implicitly into the web browser's own cache as a result of prior online browsing by the user or explicitly by a browser configured to keep local copies of certain web pages, which are updated when the browser is in the online state, either by checking that the local copies are up-to-date at regular intervals or by checking that the local copies are up-to-date whenever the browser is switched to the on-line state.
The postulation that humans are born with the instinct or "innate facility" for acquiring language posed a challenge to the behaviorist position that all behavior, including language, is contingent upon learning and reinforcement. The reason for this is that unlike cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies track the same people, and therefore the differences observed in those people are less likely to be the result of cultural differences across generations. The stimuli were held to exert influence in proportion to their prior repetition or to the previous intensity of their associated pain or pleasure. The study of group dynamics reveals information about the nature and potential optimization of leadership, communication, and other phenomena that emerge at least at the microsocial level. The study of human society is therefore a potentially valuable source of information about the causes of psychiatric disorder.
The subject believes that for each wrong answer, the learner was receiving actual electric shocks, though in reality there were no such punishments. The term baccalaureus is a pun combining the prosaic baccalarius with bacca lauri' "laurel berry"—according to the American Heritage Dictionary, "bacca" is the Old Irish word for "farmer" + laureus, "laurel berry," the idea being that a "baccalaureate" had farmed (cultivated) his mind. The term is restricted to men who are not in a pair bond and not actively seeking a long-term partner. The various therapeutic approaches and practices are associated with different theoretical perspectives and employ different procedures intended to form a therapeutic alliance, explore the nature of psychological problems, and encourage new ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving. The work of child psychologists such as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Bernard Luskin, and Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices.
Theories of learning emphasized the ways in which people might be predisposed, or conditioned, by their environments to behave in certain ways. There has been a growing movement to integrate the various therapeutic approaches, especially with an increased understanding of issues regarding culture, gender, spirituality, and sexual orientation. These human studies would violate the Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association, the Canadian Code of Conduct for Research Involving Humans, and the Belmont Report. These include behavioral experiments, brain-scanning or functional neuroimaging, used to examine the activity of the brain during task performance, and techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, which can safely alter the function of small brain areas to reveal their importance in mental operations. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society.
They also suffer methodological limitations such as from selective attrition because people with similar characteristics may be more likely to drop out of the study making it difficult to analyze. They carry different assumptions about such issues as the role of the unconscious and the importance of childhood experience. This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria during the late 19th century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism. This can be useful when the computer is offline and connection to the Internet is impossible or undesirable. This typically involves looking for differences in patterns of remaining ability (known as "functional disassociations") that can give clues as to whether abilities are composed of smaller functions or are controlled by a single cognitive mechanism.
Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought, most of which may be classed as Neo-Freudian. Thus there were two classes of baccalarii: the baccalarii cursores, theological candidates passed for admission to the divinity course; and the baccalarii dispositi, who, having completed this course, were entitled to proceed to the higher degrees. Watson's Little Albert experiment which applied classical conditioning to the developing human child, and the clarification of the difference between classical conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning, first by Miller and Kanorski and then by Skinner. When a large number of devices are connected to a sync master it is often convenient, if one wants to hear just the output of one single device, to take it offline because, if the device is played back online, all synchronized devices have to locate the playback point and wait for each other device to be in synchronization. When online it will attempt to connect to mail servers (to check for new mail at regular intervals, for example), and when offline it will not attempt to make any such connection.
When pages are added to the Favourites list, they can be marked to be "available for offline browsing". When the sync master commences playback, the online device automatically synchronizes itself to the master and commences playing from the same point in the recording. With the advent of more robust research findings regarding psychotherapy, there is evidence that most of the major therapies are about of equal effectiveness, with the key common element being a strong therapeutic alliance. With the rise of computer science and artificial intelligence, analogies were drawn between the processing of information by humans and information processing by machines. Wundt is credited with setting up psychology as a field of scientific inquiry independent of the disciplines philosophy and biology.
designed on an intuitive basis' to produce 'a state of helplessness and hopelessness, sunken in a well of despair. escolier "student", from earlier escoler), "knight bachelor", a young squire in training, ultimately from Medieval Latin baccalāris (cf. ion School psychology combines principles from educational psychology and clinical psychology to understand and treat students with learning disabilities; to foster the intellectual growth of gifted students; to facilitate prosocial behaviors in adolescents; and otherwise to promote safe, supportive, and effective learning environments. the most controversial experiment to come out of the Wisconsin laboratory, a device that Harlow insisted on calling the 'pit of despair. " He writes that Harlow made no mention of the criticism of the morality of his work.
"Bachelor" can also refer to those holding a "bachelor's degree" from a university (or a four-year college, in the American system of higher education).  This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C" (in support of MIL-STD-188). , the National Institutes of Health established the Institutional Review Board in 1966, and in 1974 adopted the National Research Act (HR 7724). , there has been increasing debate about the nature of therapeutic effectiveness and about the relevance of empirically examining psychotherapeutic strategies. 05 significance criterion (whereby an observed difference is deemed "statistically significant" if an effect of that size or larger would occur with 5% (or less) probability in independent replications, assuming the truth of the null-hypothesis of no difference between the treatments).
5% of psychiatry/psychology studies confirmed the effects they were looking for, which was around five times more often than in space- or geosciences. : "Melioration and Self-Experimentation" Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Board in 1966, and in 1974 ad A rat undergoing a Morris water navigation test used in behavioral neuroscience to study the role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory. A third example of a common use of these concepts is a web browser that can be instructed to be in either online or offline states. Affective neuroscience · Behavioral neurology · Behavioral genetics · Behavioral neuroscience · Brain–computer interface · Chronobiology · Clinical neurophysiology · Clinical neuroscience · Cognitive neuroscience · Computational neuroscience · Connectomics · Evolution of nervous systems · Imaging genetics · Integrative neuroscience · Molecular cellular cognition · Neural development · Neural engineering · Neural network (both artificial and biological) · Neural signal processing · Neural tissue regeneration · Neuroanatomy · Neurobioengineering · Neurobiology · Neurobiotics · Neurocardiology · Neurochemistry · Neurochip · Neurodegeneration · Neurodevelopmental disorders · Neurodiversity · Neuroeconomics · Neuroembryology · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroepidemiology · Neuroethics · Neuroethology · Neurogastroenterology · Neurogenetics · Neuroimaging · Neuroimmunology · Neuroinformatics · Neurointensive care · Neurolinguistics · Neurology · Neurometrics · Neuromodulation · Neuromonitoring · Neurooncology · Neuro-ophthalmology · Neuropathology · Neuropharmacology · Neurophilosophy · Neurophysics · Neurophysiology · Neuroplasticity · Neuroprosthetics · Neuropsychiatry · Neuropsychology · Neuroradiology · Neurorehabilitation · Neurorobotics · Neurosurgery · Neurotechnology · Neurotology · Neurotoxin · Neurotransmitter · Neurovirology · Psychiatry · Sensory neuroscience · Social neuroscience · Systems neuroscience
An experiment by Stanley Milgram raised questions about the ethics of scientific experimentation because of the extreme emotional stress suffered by the participants. Animal experiments aid in investigating many aspects of human psychology, including perception, emotion, learning, memory, and thought, to name a few. Artificial neural network with two layers, an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain. Assuming both, that the covert mind should be studied and that the scientific method should be used to study it, cognitive psychologists set such concepts as subliminal processing and implicit memory in place of the psychoanalytic unconscious mind or the behavioristic contingency-shaped behaviors. Austrian existential psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor Viktor Frankl drew evidence of meaning's therapeutic power from reflections garnered from his own internment,[42] and he created a variation of existential psychotherapy called logotherapy, a type of existentialist analysis that focuses on a will to meaning (in one's life), as opposed to Adler's Nietzschean doctrine of will to power or Freud's will to pleasure.
Because most longitudinal studies are observational, in the sense that they observe the state of the world without manipulating it, it has been argued that they may have less power to detect causal relationships than do experiments. Because some areas of psychology rely on research methods such as surveys and questionnaires, critics have asserted that psychology is not an objective science. Biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience is the study of the biological substrates of behavior and mental processes. Clinical psychology includes the study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn.
Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior. Computational modeling[67] is a tool often used in mathematical psychology and cognitive psychology to simulate a particular behavior using a computer. Critical psychology is a sub-discipline aimed at evaluating mainstream psychology and attempts to apply psychology in more progressive ways, often looking towards social change as a means of preventing and treating psychopathology. D (Editor), A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects and Doctrines (London: John Murray, 1887), 485. Degree (graph theory), or valency, the number of edges incident to a vertex of a graph
Degree Gay-Lussac, a measure of the alcohol content of a liquid by volume, ranging from 0° to 100° Degree of unsaturation, in organic chemistry, also known as the index of hydrogen deficiency or rings plus double bonds Degree proof, or simply proof, the alcohol content of a liquid, ranging from 0° to 175° in the UK, and from 0° to 200° in the U. Degrees of freedom (mechanics), the number of displacements and/or rotations needed to define the position and orientation of a body Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), a concept describing dependence on a countable set of parameters
Degrees of freedom (statistics), the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Existential psychologists differed from others often classified as humanistic in their comparatively neutral view of human nature and in their relatively positive assessment of anxiety. Flowchart of four phases (enrollment, intervention allocation, follow-up, and data analysis) of a parallel randomized trial of two groups, modified from the CONSORT 2010 Statement[64] For communities that lack adequate Internet connectivity -- like developing countries, rural areas, and prisons -- off-line information stores like the eGranary Digital Library (a collection of approximately 30 million educational resources from more than 2,000 Web sites and hundreds of CD-ROMs) provide off-line access to information.
Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a method of investigation of the mind and the way one thinks; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict. Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist, and psychologist William James. Gestalt psychology should not be confused with the Gestalt therapy of Fritz Perls, which is only peripherally linked to Gestalt psychology. Harry Harlow drew condemnation for his "pit of despair" experiments on rhesus macaque monkeys at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in the 1970s.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. In 1959 statistician Theodore Sterling examined the results of psychological studies and discovered that 97% of them supported their initial hypotheses, implying a possible publication bias. In 2010, a group of researchers reported a systemic bias in psychology studies towards WEIRD ("western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic") subjects. In addition to May and Frankl, Swiss psychoanalyst Ludwig Binswanger and American psychologist George Kelly may be said to belong to the existential school. In certain Gulf Arab countries, "bachelor" can refer to men who are single as well as immigrant men married to a spouse residing in their country of origin (due to the high added cost of sponsoring a spouse onsite) [3], and a colloquial term "executive bachelor" is also used in rental and sharing accommodation advertisements to indicate availability to white-collar bachelors in particular [4].
In the 1950s and 1960s, largely influenced by the work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger and Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, psychoanalytically trained American psychologist Rollo May pioneered an existential branch of psychology, which included existential psychotherapy, a method of therapy that operates on the belief that inner conflict within a person is due to that individual's confrontation with the givens of existence. Industrial and organizational psychology (I–O) applies psychological concepts and methods to optimize human potential in the workplace. Just as Jane Goodall studied chimpanzee social and family life by careful observation of chimpanzee behavior in the field, psychologists conduct observational studies of ongoing human social, professional, and family life. Likewise, offline storage is computer data storage that is not "available for immediate use on demand by the system without human intervention. Linguist Noam Chomsky's critique of the behaviorist model of language acquisition is widely regarded as a key factor in the decline of behaviorism's prominence.
Longitudinal studies are often used in psychology to study developmental trends across the life span, and in sociology to study life events throughout lifetimes or generations. Mainly focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. Neuropsychology seeks to connect aspects of behavior and mental activity with the structure and function of the brain. Noam Chomsky helped to ignite a "cognitive revolution" in psychology when he criticized the behaviorists' notions of "stimulus", "response", and "reinforcement", arguing that such ideas—which Skinner had borrowed from animal experiments in the laboratory—could be applied to complex human behavior, most notably language acquisition, in only a superficial and vague manner. On a broader level, cognitive science is an interdisciplinary enterprise of cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, researchers in artificial intelligence, linguists, human–computer interaction, computational neuroscience, logicians and social scientists.
One example of a common use of these concepts is a mail user agent that can be instructed to be in either online or offline states. Online and offline distinctions have been generalized from computing and telecommunication into the field of human interpersonal relationships. Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin,[19] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings. Personality psychology is concerned to enduring patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion in individuals, commonly referred to as personality. Please help by adding references that support its inclusion, or remove the category link if none exist.
Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck, and by philosophers including Karl Popper. Psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1943 posited that humans have a hierarchy of needs, and it makes sense to fulfill the basic needs first (food, water etc. Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Psychologists may conduct basic research aiming for further understanding in a particular area of interest in psychology, or conduct applied research to solve problems in the clinic, workplace or other areas. Psychology encompasses a vast domain and includes many different approaches to the study of mental processes and behavior.
Psychology tends to be eclectic, drawing on knowledge from other fields to help explain and understand psychological phenomena. Research designed to answer questions about the current state of affairs such as the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals is known as descriptive research. Research done by sociologists Richard Pitt and Elizabeth Borland sharpens the definition of bachelor to mean "men who live independently, outside of their parents' home and other institutional settings, who are neither married nor cohabitating" because these researchers discovered that these profiled men were more liberal in their attitudes towards women's roles in society; this was not the case for those men who were "unmarried" outside this profile. Research in most areas of psychology is conducted in accord with the standards of the scientific method. Slater asserts that there are legal and regulatory pressures to reduce the distinction between online and offline, with a "general tendency to assimilate online to offline and erase the distinction," stressing, however, that this does not mean that online relationships are being reduced to pre-existing offline relationships.
Social psychology is the study of how humans think about each other and how they relate to each other. Some observers perceive a gap between scientific theory and its application—in particular, the application of unsupported or unsound clinical practices. Sometimes the debate comes from within psychology, for example between laboratory-oriented researchers and practitioners such as clinicians. Starting in the 1950s, the experimental techniques set forth by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others would be reiterated as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitive—concerned with information and its processing—and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science. Statistical surveys are used in psychology for measuring attitudes and traits, monitoring changes in mood, checking the validity of experimental manipulations, and for a wide variety of other psychological topics.
The Stroop effect refers to the fact that naming the color of the first set of words is easier and quicker than the second. The concepts have however been extended from their computing and telecommunication meanings into the area of human interaction and conversation, such that even offline can be used in contrast to the common usage of online. The degree of an algebraic number field, its degree as a field extension of the rational numbers The distinction between online and offline is conventionally seen as the distinction between computer-mediated communication and face-to-face communication (e. The experimenter (E) orders the teacher (T), the subject of the experiment, to give what the latter believes are painful electric shocks to a learner (L), who is actually an actor and confederate.
The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. The terms "online" and "offline" (also stylized as "on-line" and "off-line") have specific meanings in regard to computer technology and telecommunications. The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (ψυχή, psukhē, meaning "breath", "spirit", or "soul"; and -λογος -logos, translated as "study of" or "research"[10]). The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be influenced by various therapeutic approaches, all of which involve a formal relationship between professional and client (usually an individual, couple, family, or small group). This article is in the category Neuroscience, but no reliable sources are cited to verify its inclusion.
This distinction between online and offline is sometimes inverted, with online concepts being used to define and to explain offline activities, rather than (as per the conventions of the desktop metaphor with its desktops, trash cans, folders, and so forth) the other way around. While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also applied to understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. [11] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. [12] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul. [15] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders were of a physical, rather than divine, nature.
[17] Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. [1][2] Grounded in scientific method,[1][2] psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and for many it ultimately aims to benefit society. [21] In its early years, this development was seen as a "revolution",[21] as it both responded to and reacted against strains of thought—including psychodynamics and behaviorism—that had developed in the meantime. [27] Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of Freud's ideas on scientific grounds,[28] while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud was not a "scientist at all, but . [29] He believed that the contents of the mind were not open to scientific scrutiny and that scientific psychology should emphasize the study of observable behavior.
[30] Behaviorists usually rejected or deemphasized dualistic explanations such as "mind" or "consciousness"; and, in lieu of probing an "unconscious mind" that underlies unawareness, they spoke of the "contingency-shaped behaviors" in which unawareness becomes outwardly manifest. [31][32] Skinner's version of behaviorism emphasized operant conditioning, through which behaviors are strengthened or weakened by their consequences. [33] Martin Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes ("learned helplessness") that opposed the predictions of behaviorism. [33] The fall of behaviorism as an overarching model in psychology, however, gave way to a new dominant paradigm: cognitive approaches. [34][35] But Skinner's behaviorism did not die, perhaps in part because it generated successful practical applications.
[38] By using phenomenology, intersubjectivity, and first-person categories, the humanistic approach sought to glimpse the whole person—not just the fragmented parts of the personality or cognitive functioning. [39] Humanism focused on fundamentally and uniquely human issues, such as individual free will, personal growth, self-actualization, self-identity, death, aloneness, freedom, and meaning. [40] Existential psychologists emphasized the humanistic themes of death, free will, and meaning, suggesting that meaning can be shaped by myths, or narrative patterns,[41] and that it can be encouraged by an acceptance of the free will requisite to an authentic, albeit often anxious, regard for death and other future prospects. [45] Social learning theorists, such as Albert Bandura, argued that the child's environment could make contributions of its own to the behaviors of an observant subject. [47] By the late 20th century, though, cognitivism had become the dominant paradigm of mainstream psychology, and cognitive psychology emerged as a popular branch.
[48] Cognitive neuroscientists investigate the neural correlates of psychological processes in humans using neural imaging tools, and neuropsychologists conduct psychological assessments to determine, for instance, specific aspects and extent of cognitive deficit caused by brain damage or disease. [49] Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury—this area is known as clinical neuropsychology. [50][51] Because of this, more training programs and psychologists are now adopting an eclectic therapeutic orientation. [57] Research in comparative psychology sometimes appears to shed light on human behavior, but some attempts to connect the two have been quite controversial, for example the Sociobiology of E. [5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist.
[61] Trait theorists, in contrast, attempt to analyze personality in terms of a discrete number of key traits by the statistical method of factor analysis. [73] Some psychologists have responded with an increased use of effect size statistics, rather than sole reliance on the Fisherian p < . [76] Critics say there has been an increase in the number of mental health training programs that do not instill scientific competence. [77] One skeptic asserts that practices, such as "facilitated communication for infantile autism"; memory-recovery techniques including body work; and other therapies, such as rebirthing and reparenting, may be dubious or even dangerous, despite their popularity. [80] Keeping this in mind, psychologists can use on animals research techniques that could not be used on humans.
[8] To support his argument that the distinctions in relationships are more complex than a simple online/offline dichotomy, he observes that some people draw no distinction between an on-line relationship, such as indulging in cybersex, and an offline relationship, such as being pen pals. [90] Although only 1/8 people worldwide fall into the WEIRD classification, the researchers claimed that 60–90% of psychology studies are performed on WEIRD subjects. [citation needed] False positive conclusions, often resulting from the pressure to publish or the author's own confirmation bias, are an inherent hazard in the field, requiring a certain degree of skepticism on the part of readers. [citation needed] Some of the founders of the humanistic school of thought were American psychologists Abraham Maslow, who formulated a hierarchy of human needs, and Carl Rogers, who created and developed client-centered therapy. ^ "The mission of the APA [American Psychological Association] is to advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people’s lives"; APA (2010).
^ Aidman, Eugene, Galanis, George, Manton, Jeremy, Vozzo, Armando and Bonner, Michael (2002) 'Evaluating human systems in military training', Australian Journal of Psychology, 54:3, 168–173 ^ Although psychoanalysis and other forms of depth psychology are most typically associated with the unconscious mind, behaviorists consider such phenomena as classical conditioning and operant conditioning, while cognitivists explore implicit memory, automaticity, and subliminal messages, all of which are understood either to bypass or to occur outside of conscious effort or attention. ^ For example, scientists have related brain structures to Freudian concepts such as libido, drives, the unconscious, and repression. ^ Friedrich Paulsen, Immanuel Kant, His Life and Doctrine (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902), 26. ^ Hamilton Wright Mabie, Noble Living and Grand Achievement: Giants of the Republic (Philadelphia: John C.
^ Hubert Marshall Skinner, The Schoolmaster in Comedy and Satire (New York: American Book Company, 1894), 129. ^ Martin Buber, "The Question to the Single One," from Soren Kierkegaard: Critical Assessments of Leading Philosophers, edited by Daniel W. ^ Nicholas Phillipson, David Hume: The Philosopher as Historian (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012), 12. ^ Tad Szulc, Chopin in Paris: The Life and Times of the Romantic Composer (Da Capo Press, 2000), 61. ^ William Mackintire Salter, Nietzsche the Thinker: A Study (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1917), 7.
^ a b June 2008 study by the American Psychoanalytic Association, as reported in the New York Times, "Freud Is Widely Taught at Universities, Except in the Psychology Department" by Patricia Cohen, November 25, 2007.