online classes business administration - online_classes_business_administration
online_classes_business_administration - online classes business administration





About online classes business administration - online_classes_business_administration

A business owned by multiple individuals may be referred to as a company, although that term also has a more precise meaning. A cooperative differs from a for-profit corporation in that it has members, as opposed to shareholders, who share decision-making authority.
A device that is offline uses no external clock reference and relies upon its own internal clock. A highly complex set of laws and regulations govern the offer and sale of investment securities (the means of raising money) in most Western countries. A privately owned, for-profit corporation is owned by shareholders who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A tape recorder, digital audio editor, or other device that is online is one whose clock is under the control of the clock of a synchronization master device. Another illustrates "the off-line store" where "All items are actual size!" shoppers may "Take it home as soon as you pay for it!" and "Merchandise may be handled prior to purchase!"[9][10]
Because "securities" is a very broad term, most investment transactions will be potentially subject to these laws, unless a special exemption is available. Because of the nature of intellectual property, a business needs protection in every jurisdiction in which they are concerned about competitors. Commercial law spans general corporate law, employment and labor law, health-care law, securities law, M&A law (who specialize in acquisitions), tax law, ERISA law (ERISA in the United States governs employee benefit plans), food and drug regulatory law, intellectual property law (specializing in copyrights, patents, trademarks and such), telecommunications law, and more. Corporations can be either government-owned or privately owned, and corporations can organize either for-profit or not-for-profit. Different business structures may be required to make less or more information public (or report it to relevant authorities), and may be bound to comply with different rules and regulations.
Environmental regulations are also very complex and can impact many kinds of businesses in unexpected ways. For example, discussions taking place during a business meeting are "online", while issues that do not concern all participants of the meeting should be "taken offline" — continued outside of the meeting. Generally a smaller business is more flexible, while larger businesses, or those with wider ownership or more formal structures, will usually tend to be organized as corporations or (less often) partnerships. Generally speaking, shareholders in a corporation, limited partners in a limited partnership, and members in a limited liability company are shielded from personal liability for the debts and obligations of the entity, which is legally treated as a separate "person". He also argues that even the telephone can be regarded as an online experience in some circumstances, and that the blurring of the distinctions between the uses of various technologies (such as PDA and mobile phone, internet television and Internet, and telephone and Voice over Internet Protocol) has made it "impossible to use the term on-line meaningfully in the sense that was employed by the first generation of Internet research".
He also conjectures that an online/offline distinction may be seen by people as "rather quaint and not quite comprehensible" within 10 years. He conjectures that greater legal status may be assigned to online relationships (pointing out that contractual relationships, such as business transactions, online are already seen as just as "real" as their offline counterparts), although he states it to be hard to imagine courts awarding palimony to people who have had a purely online sexual relationship. However, the exact definition of business, like much else in the philosophy of business, is a matter of debate and complexity of meanings. In 2003, the People's Republic of China reformed 80% of its state-owned enterprises and modeled them on a company-type management system. In Internet Explorer version 6, the level of direct and indirect links, the maximum amount of local disc space allowed to be consumed, and the schedule on which local copies are checked to see whether they are up-to-date, are configurable for each individual Favourites entry.
In Singapore, the regulation authority is Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), and in Hong Kong, it is Securities and Futures Commission (SFC). In addition, a business that wishes to raise money on a stock market or to be owned by a wide range of people will often be required to adopt a specific legal form to do so. In fact, these laws have become so numerous and complex, that no business lawyer can learn them all, forcing increasing specialization among corporate attorneys. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business. In order to protect trade secrets, companies may require employees to sign non-compete clauses which will impose limitations on an employees interactions with stakeholders, and competitors.
In some tax systems, this can give rise to so-called double taxation, because first the corporation pays tax on the profit, and then when the corporation distributes its profits to its owners, individuals have to include dividends in their income when they complete their personal tax returns, at which point a second layer of income tax is imposed. In the United States, these regulations are primarily implemented and enforced by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). In the offline state, users can perform offline browsing, where pages can be browsed using local copies of those pages that have previously been downloaded while in the on-line state. Internet Explorer will download to local copies both the marked page and, optionally, all of the pages that it links to. It is not unheard of for teams of 5 to 10 attorneys to be required to handle certain kinds of corporate transactions, due to the sprawling nature of modern regulation.
Local jurisdictions may also require special licenses and taxes just to operate a business without regard to the type of business involved. Major stock exchanges include the Shanghai Stock Exchange, Singapore Exchange, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq (USA), the London Stock Exchange (UK), the Tokyo Stock Exchange (Japan), Bombay Stock Exchange(India) and so on. Many countries are signatories to international treaties concerning intellectual property, and thus companies registered in these countries are subject to national laws bound by these treaties. Most legal jurisdictions allow people to organize such an entity by filing certain charter documents with the relevant Secretary of State or equivalent and complying with certain other ongoing obligations. Most public entities are corporations that have sold shares, but increasingly there are also public LLCs that sell units (sometimes also called shares), and other more exotic entities as well (for example, REITs in the USA, Unit Trusts in the UK).
No paperwork or filing is necessary to create a partnership, and without an agreement, the relationships and legal rights of the partners will be entirely governed by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located. Numerous organizations have developed, or are developing, flash memory chips with collections of educational materials for off-line use in smartphones, tablets, and laptops. One includes Saint Peter asking for a username and a password before admitting a man into Heaven. One such web browser capable of being explicitly configured to download pages for offline browsing is Internet Explorer. Organizations ranging from house decorators to consulting firms, restaurants, and even entertainers are types of service businesses.
Owner managers, or hired managers administer to three component resources that constitute the business' value or worth: financial resources, capital or tangible resources, and human resources. Patents and copyrights in the United States are largely governed by federal law, while trade secrets and trademarking are mostly a matter of state law. Professions that require special licenses range from law and medicine to flying airplanes to selling liquor to radio broadcasting to selling investment securities to selling used cars to roofing. Similarly, a computer may be configured to employ a dial-up connection on demand (as when an application such as Outlook attempts to make connection to a server), but the user may not wish for Outlook to trigger that call whenever it is configured to check for mail. That is, the computer itself may be online—connected to Internet via a cable modem or other means—while Outlook is kept offline by the user, so that it makes no attempt to send or to receive messages.
The authoritative list of business types for North America is generally considered to be the North American Industry Classification System, or NAICS. The distinction between what is considered online and what is considered offline has become a subject of study in the field of sociology. The equivalent European Union list is the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE). The major branches of management are financial management, marketing management, human resource management, strategic management, production management, operations management, service management and information technology management. The online or offline state of the MUA does not necessarily reflect the connection status between the computer on which it is running and the Internet.
The pages are downloaded either implicitly into the web browser's own cache as a result of prior online browsing by the user or explicitly by a browser configured to keep local copies of certain web pages, which are updated when the browser is in the online state, either by checking that the local copies are up-to-date at regular intervals or by checking that the local copies are up-to-date whenever the browser is switched to the on-line state. The relationships and legal rights of shareholders, limited partners, or members are governed partly by the charter documents and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the entity is organized. The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the singular usage to mean a particular organization; the generalized usage to refer to a particular market sector, "the music business" and compound forms such as agribusiness; and the broadest meaning, which encompasses all activity by the community of suppliers of goods and services. The terms of a partnership are partly governed by a partnership agreement if one is created, and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the partnership is located. The three typical classifications of for-profit partnerships are general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships.
There are laws governing treatment of labor and generally relations with employees, safety and protection issues (Health and Safety), anti-discrimination laws (age, gender, disabilities, race, and in some jurisdictions, sexual orientation), minimum wage laws, union laws, workers compensation laws, and annual vacation or working hours time. These industries include, for example, public utilities, investment securities, banking, insurance, broadcasting, aviation, and health care providers. These regulations can require disclosure of a lot of specific financial and other information about the business and give buyers certain remedies. These resources are administered to in at least five functional areas: legal contracting, manufacturing or service production, marketing, accounting, financing, and human resourcing. They may be exempt from certain legal filing requirements or labor laws, have simplified procedures in specialized areas, and have simplified, advantageous, or slightly different tax treatment.
This can be useful when the computer is offline and connection to the Internet is impossible or undesirable. This means that unless there is misconduct, the owner's own possessions are strongly protected in law if the business does not succeed. When a large number of devices are connected to a sync master it is often convenient, if one wants to hear just the output of one single device, to take it offline because, if the device is played back online, all synchronized devices have to locate the playback point and wait for each other device to be in synchronization. When online it will attempt to connect to mail servers (to check for new mail at regular intervals, for example), and when offline it will not attempt to make any such connection. When pages are added to the Favourites list, they can be marked to be "available for offline browsing".
When the sync master commences playback, the online device automatically synchronizes itself to the master and commences playing from the same point in the recording. " It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach.  This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C" (in support of MIL-STD-188). A business (also known as enterprise or firm) is an organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers. A single person who owns and runs a business is commonly known as a sole proprietor, whether that person owns it directly or through a formally organized entity.
A third example of a common use of these concepts is a web browser that can be instructed to be in either online or offline states. Academic administration, a branch of an academic institution responsible for the maintenance and supervision of the institution Agriculture and mining businesses are concerned with the production of raw material, such as plants or minerals. Although forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, there are several common forms which are as follows: As for other laws that regulate or impact businesses, in many countries it is all but impossible to chronicle them all in a single reference source.
As noted at the beginning, it is impossible to enumerate all of the types of laws and regulations that impact on business today. Business process management (BPM) is a holistic management approach[1] focused on aligning all aspects of an organization with the wants and needs of clients. Businesses often have important "intellectual property" that needs protection from competitors for the company to stay profitable. Businesses that have gone "public" are subject to extremely detailed and complicated regulation about their internal governance (such as how executive officers' compensation is determined) and when and how information is disclosed to the public and their shareholders. Capital may be raised through private means, by public offer (IPO) on a stock exchange, or in many other ways.
Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently to group phenomena from grouping as 'types' or 'kinds' Class (social), the hierarchical arrangement of individuals in society, usually defined by material wealth and occupation Class attribute, a feature of many HTML and XHTML elements, typically to identify them for styles Cooperative: Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited liability business that can organize for-profit or not-for-profit. Corporation: A corporation is a limited liability business that has a separate legal personality from its members.
Financial businesses include banks and other companies that generate profit through investment and management of capital. For communities that lack adequate Internet connectivity -- like developing countries, rural areas, and prisons -- off-line information stores like the eGranary Digital Library (a collection of approximately 30 million educational resources from more than 2,000 Web sites and hundreds of CD-ROMs) provide off-line access to information. General partners in a partnership (other than a limited liability partnership), plus anyone who personally owns and operates a business without creating a separate legal entity, are personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. In recent decades, assets and enterprises that were run by various states have been modeled after business enterprises.
In some specialized businesses, there may also be licenses required, either due to special laws that govern entry into certain trades, occupations or professions, which may require special education, or by local governments. Information businesses generate profits primarily from the resale of intellectual property and include movie studios, publishers and packaged software companies. Likewise, offline storage is computer data storage that is not "available for immediate use on demand by the system without human intervention. Limited Liability Companies (LLC), limited liability partnerships, and other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections. Manufacturers produce products, from raw materials or component parts, which they then sell at a profit.
Many businesses are operated through a separate entity such as a corporation or a partnership (either formed with or without limited liability). Military administration, the techniques and systems used by military services involved in the management of the armed forces Most commercial transactions are governed by a very detailed and well-established body of rules that have evolved over a very long period of time, it being the case that governing trade and commerce was a strong driving force in the creation of law and courts in Western civilization. Most legal jurisdictions specify the forms of ownership that a business can take, creating a body of commercial law for each type. One example of a common use of these concepts is a mail user agent that can be instructed to be in either online or offline states.
Online and offline distinctions have been generalized from computing and telecommunication into the field of human interpersonal relationships. Real estate businesses generate profit from the selling, renting, and development of properties comprising land, residential homes, and other kinds of buildings. Retailers and distributors act as middle-men in getting goods produced by manufacturers to the intended consumer, generating a profit as a result of providing sales or distribution services. Service businesses offer intangible goods or services and typically generate a profit by charging for labor or other services provided to government, other businesses, or consumers. Slater asserts that there are legal and regulatory pressures to reduce the distinction between online and offline, with a "general tendency to assimilate online to offline and erase the distinction," stressing, however, that this does not mean that online relationships are being reduced to pre-existing offline relationships.
The concepts have however been extended from their computing and telecommunication meanings into the area of human interaction and conversation, such that even offline can be used in contrast to the common usage of online. The distinction between online and offline is conventionally seen as the distinction between computer-mediated communication and face-to-face communication (e. The efficient and effective operation of a business, and study of this subject, is called management. The etymology of "business" relates to the state of being busy either as an individual or society as a whole, doing commercially viable and profitable work. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
The size and scope of the business firm and its structure, management, and ownership, broadly analyzed in the theory of the firm. The terms "online" and "offline" (also stylized as "on-line" and "off-line") have specific meanings in regard to computer technology and telecommunications. This distinction between online and offline is sometimes inverted, with online concepts being used to define and to explain offline activities, rather than (as per the conventions of the desktop metaphor with its desktops, trash cans, folders, and so forth) the other way around. To "go public" (sometimes called IPO) -- which basically means to allow a part of the business to be owned by a wider range of investors or the public in general—you must organize a separate entity, which is usually required to comply with a tighter set of laws and procedures. Transportation businesses deliver goods and individuals from location to location, generating a profit on the transportation costs.
Where two or more individuals own a business together but have failed to organize a more specialized form of vehicle, they will be treated as a general partnership. [1] Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and administered to earn profit to increase the wealth of their owners. [2] Many state institutions and enterprises in China and Russia have been transformed into joint-stock companies, with part of their shares being listed on public stock markets. [8] To support his argument that the distinctions in relationships are more complex than a simple online/offline dichotomy, he observes that some people draw no distinction between an on-line relationship, such as indulging in cybersex, and an offline relationship, such as being pen pals.