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Categories: LaptopsClasses of computersPersonal computingHidden categories: Use dmy dates from June 2012All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from August 2010Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011Articles with unsourced statements from February 2012
"Study finds men who place laptop computer on lap put testicles at risk of overheating, infertility".
1366 × 768-resolution displays of sizes 14" and under tend to exhibit the same low-contrast-related poor image quality, but do not make items onscreen as large.
A "personal, portable information manipulator" was imagined by Alan Kay at Xerox PARC in 1968, and described in his 1972 paper as the "Dynabook".
A battery's performance gradually decreases with time, leading to an eventual replacement in one to three years, depending on the charging and discharging pattern.
A common passive method is just propping the laptop up on some type of pad so it can receive more air flow.
A desktop PC needs a UPS to handle short interruptions, blackouts and spikes; achieving on-battery time of more than 20–30 minutes for a desktop PC requires a large and expensive UPS.
A general active method is plugging a laptop cooler into the laptop and using fans to draw heat away from the laptop.
A higher resolution in a fixed size display will make items onscreen appear smaller than they would on a lower resolution.
A laptop connects and disconnects easily to a docking station, typically through a single large proprietary connector.
A laptop is powered by mains electricity via an AC adapter, and can be used away from an outlet using a rechargeable battery.
A larger and higher-quality external screen can be connected to almost any laptop to alleviate that and to provide additional screen space for more productive work.
A liquid spill onto the keyboard, a rather minor mishap with a desktop system, can damage the internals of a laptop and result in a costly repair.
A new battery typically stores enough energy to run the laptop for three to five hours, depending on usage, configuration, and power management settings.
A port replicator is a simplified docking station that only provides connections from the laptop to input/output ports.
Also, the top-of-the-line mobile graphics processors (GPUs) are significantly behind the top-of-the-line desktop GPUs to a greater degree than the processors, which limits the utility of laptops for high-end 3D gaming and scientific visualization applications.
Although the trolleys can be moved between areas in buildings, they can often also be mounted to the floor or walls to prevent thieves walking off with investments, especially overnight.
An external keyboard and/or mouse may be connected using USB or PS/2 port, or Bluetooth (if present).
Another early model was the Poqet PC of 1989 and the Hewlett Packard HP 95LX of 1991.
As portable computers became smaller, lighter, cheaper, more powerful and as screens became larger and of better quality, laptops became very widely used for all sorts of purposes, by all sorts of people.
As the need for additional storage and expansion slots became less critical because of the high integration inside the laptop, port replicators have gained popularity, being a cheaper, often passive device that often simply mates to the connectors on the back of the notebook, or connects via a standardized port such as USB or FireWire.
Because of the additional requirements, laptop components are usually slower compared to similarly priced desktop parts.
Because the netbooks are thin, the first such products introduced to the market had their primary internal storage in the form of solid-state drives and not hard disks, which are essential to installing very many programs.
Both docking stations and port replicators are intended to be used at a permanent working place (a desk) to offer instant connection to multiple input/output devices and to extend a laptop's capabilities.
Bulkier and sturdier cases can be made of metal with polyurethane padding inside, and may have locks, for added security.
Capitalizing on service, support and brand image, laptops from major brands are more expensive than laptops by smaller brands and ODMs.
Components such as screen hinges, latches, power jacks and power cords deteriorate gradually from ordinary use.
Compressed air can dislodge the dust and debris but may not always remove it; after the device is turned on, the loose debris builds back up the cooling system by the fans.
Consequently, physical protection of laptops and the safeguarding of data contained on them are both of great importance.
Currently, 250 to 500 GB sizes are common for laptop hard disks (64 to 512 GB for SSDs).
Currently, most midrange laptops are factory equipped with 3–4 GB of DDR2 RAM, while some higher end notebooks feature up to 32 GB of DDR3 memory.
Devices such as sound cards, network adapters, hard and optical drives, and numerous other peripherals are available, but these upgrades usually impair the laptop's portability, because they add cables and boxes to the setup and often have to be disconnected and reconnected when the laptop is on the move.
Early laptops used heat sinks placed directly on the components to be cooled, but when these hot components are deep inside the device, a large space-wasting air duct is needed to exhaust the heat.
For desktops (excluding all-in-ones) this is divided into the desktop, keyboard, mouse, display, and optional peripherals such as speakers.
For example, an office worker managing their e-mails during an hour-long commute by train, or a student doing his/her homework at the university coffee shop during a break between lectures.
Furthermore, the design bounds on power, size, and cooling of laptops limit the maximum performance of laptop parts compared to that of desktop components.
Having a higher resolution display will allow you to fit more onscreen at a time, thus improving your ability to multitask.
However, laptop processors can be disadvantaged when dealing with higher-end database, maths, engineering, financial software, virtualization, etc.
However, using a single laptop at both locations avoids the problem entirely, as the files exist in a single location and are always up-to-date.
If you as a buyer have a budget that allows you to get a laptop that one of the higher-resolution displays and at the same time suits your needs, and if you don't require the larger text provided by a lower resolution for eyesight-related reasons, then it is commonly recommended that you avoid buying laptops that come with the lower-resolution 15.
Immediacy allows better collaboration between coworkers or students, as a laptop can be flipped open to present a problem or a solution anytime, anywhere.
In 2006, 7 major ODMs manufactured 7 of every 10 laptops in the world, with the largest one (Quanta Computer) having 30% world market share.
In addition, modern operating systems and third-party software offer disk encryption functionality, which renders the data on the laptop's hard drive unreadable without a key or a pass phrase.
Innovations in laptops and batteries have seen new possible matchings which can provide up to a full 24 hours of continued operation, assuming average power consumption levels.
Instead, a complete disassembly is required to clean the laptop and some are difficult to disassemble by the normal user and contain components that are sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD).
Instead, a small number of Original Design Manufacturers (ODMs) design new models of laptops, and the brands choose the models to be included in their lineup.
Intel estimates that by the end of 2012, 40 percent of the consumer laptop market segment will be Ultrabooks.
Intel, Asus, Compal, Quanta and some other laptop manufacturers have created the Common Building Block standard for laptop parts to address some of the inefficiencies caused by the lack of standards.
It can charge the battery and power the laptop simultaneously; when the battery is fully charged, the laptop continues to run on power supplied by the external power supply.
It is also usually cheaper than a full-size laptop, but has fewer features and less computing power.
It renders Web pages quickly, launches most applications without becoming too bogged down and generally doesn't feel like it's a budget laptop.
Laptops used aboard the International Space Station and other spaceflights are generally the same ones that can be purchased by the general public but needed modifications are made to allow them to be used safely and effectively in a weightless environment such as updating the cooling systems to function without relying on hot air rising and accommodation for the lower cabin air pressure.
Less common are legacy ports such as a PS/2 keyboard/mouse port, serial port or a parallel port.
Lower Merion School District (Eastern District of Pennsylvania 2010), school-issued laptops loaded with special software afforded two high schools with the capability to take secret webcam shots of their students at home, via their students' laptops.
Modern laptops instead rely on heat pipes to rapidly move waste heat towards the edges of the device, to allow for a much smaller and compact fan and heat sink cooling system.
Most laptops do not have any type of removable dust collection filter over the air intake for these cooling systems, resulting in a system that gradually causes it to conduct more heat and noise as the years pass.
Most laptops have removable CPUs, although some support by the motherboard may be restricted to the specific models.
Most subnotebooks achieve a further portability improvement by omitting an optical/removable media drive; in this case they may be paired with a docking station that contains the drive and optionally more ports or an additional battery.
Multiple air intake paths are used, because some intakes can be blocked, such as when the device is placed on a soft conforming surface such as a chair cushion.
Netbooks however, are commonly equipped with only 1 GB of RAM to keep manufacturing costs low.
Netbooks with a 10 inches (25 cm) or smaller screen typically use a resolution of 1024×600, while netbooks and subnotebooks with a 11.
On the non-x86 architectures, Motorola and IBM produced the chips for the former PowerPC-based Apple laptops (iBook and PowerBook).
One study found that a laptop is three times more likely to break during the first year of use than a desktop.
Optical drives and internal expansion cards may be upgraded if they follow an industry standard, but all other internal components, including the motherboard, CPU and graphics, are not always intended to be upgradeable.
Optical storage, read-only CD-ROM followed by writeable CD and later read-only or writeable DVD and Blu-ray, became common in laptops soon in the 2000s.
Rugged laptops are bulkier, heavier, and much more expensive than regular laptops, and thus are seldom seen in regular consumer use.
Rugged laptops are commonly used by public safety services (police, fire and medical emergency), military, utilities, field service technicians, construction, mining and oil drilling personnel.
Rugged laptops are usually sold to organizations, rather than individuals, and are rarely marketed via retail channels.
Schools, especially those with open plan designs, are often prime targets for thieves and laptops, netbooks and tablets can easily be concealed and removed from buildings.
Since netbook laptops are quite small in size, netbooks typically do not come with an internal optical drive.
Since the introduction of netbooks, the line between subnotebooks and higher-end netbooks has been substantially blurred.
Sleeves, which are distinguished by being relatively thin and flexible, are most commonly made of neoprene, with sturdier ones made of LRPu (low-resilience polyurethane), with some wrapped in ballistic nylon to provide some measure of waterproofing.
Some CPUs, such as the 1990 Intel i386SL, were designed to use minimum power to increase battery life of portable computers, and were supported by dynamic power management features such as Intel SpeedStep and AMD PowerNow! in some designs.
Some designs with metal cases, like Apple's aluminum MacBook Pro and MacBook Air also employ the case of the machine as a "gigantic" heat sink, and rely on it to pump heat out of the device core.
Some laptops also now have additional security elements added by the consumer, including eye recognition software and fingerprint scanning components.
Some models use screens with resolutions common in desktop PCs (for example, 1440×900, 1600×900 and 1680×1050.
Some newer laptops (usually ultraportables) employ more expensive, but faster, lighter and power-efficient flash memory-based SSDs instead.
Some subsystems (such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or a cellular modem) can be implemented as replaceable internal expansion cards, usually accessible under an access cover on the bottom of the laptop.
Sony had already made a first attempt in this direction in 2004 with its Vaio U series, which was however only sold in Asia.
The $8,150 ($19,630 today) GRiD Compass 1100, released in 1982, was used at NASA and by the military among others.
The Dulmont Magnum was released in Australia in 1981–82, but was not marketed internationally until 1984–85.
The Gavilan SC, released in 1983, was the first computer described as a "laptop" by its manufacturer.
The battery is often easily replaceable and a higher capacity model may be obtained for longer life.
The cost of stolen business or personal data, and of the resulting problems (identity theft, credit card fraud, breach of privacy), can be many times the value of the stolen laptop itself.
The difference between available display resolutions will often affect the user's experience considerably more than the difference between available processors and available memory, but it is commonly misconceived to be the opposite.
The first commercial laptop used in space was a Macintosh portable in 1991 aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-43.
The first handheld device compatible with desktop IBM personal computers of the time was the Atari Portfolio of 1989.
The joint allows the screen to rotate through 180° and fold down on top of the keyboard to provide a flat writing surface.
The measurement of at least 11 inches across has been suggested as the threshold for this class.
The memory effect happens when one does not use a battery to its fullest extent, then recharges the battery.
The most common use was in a corporate computing environment where the company had standardized on a common network card and this same card was placed into the docking station.
The power supply is usually external, and connected to the laptop through a AC connector cable.
The resulting heat increase, which could not be offset by a laptop cushion, may increase male infertility.
The study, which included roughly two dozen men between the ages of 21 and 35, found that the sitting position required to balance a laptop can increase scrotum temperature by as much as 2.
The term is used to describe a highly portable laptop that has strict limits for size, weight, battery life, and have tablet-like features such as instant on functionality.
The trolleys are predominately used in schools that have replaced their traditional static ICT suites of desktop computers with laptops, but do not have enough plug sockets in their buildings to charge all of the devices.
The user can choose between using integrated graphics when battery life is important and dedicated graphics when demanding applications call for it.
There are "convertable tablets" with a full keyboard where the screen rotates to be used atop the keyboard, and "slate" form-factor machines which are usually touch-screen only (although a few older models feature very small keyboards along the sides of the screen.
There are ways to resolve this problem, including physical transfer of updated files (using a USB flash memory stick or CDRs) or using synchronization software over the Internet.
There is no industry-wide standard form factor for laptops; each major laptop manufacturer pursues its own proprietary design and construction, with the result that laptops are difficult to upgrade and have high repair costs.
These are usually USB powered and consist of a hard thin plastic case housing one, two or three cooling fans – with the entire assembly designed to sit under the laptop in question – which results in the laptop remaining cool to the touch, and greatly reduces laptop heat buildup.
These tiny cables usually cannot be purchased from the original manufacturer separate from the entire LCD panel, with the price of hundreds of dollars, although for popular models an aftermarket in pulled parts generally exists.
They are generally made out of steel, and the laptops remain locked up while not in use.
This could be particularly beneficial for businesses (which run hundreds of personal computers, multiplying the potential savings) and homes where there is a computer running 24/7 (such as a home media server, print server, etc.
This device helps lower the internal temperature of the laptop by using either active or passive methods.
This dust is usually stuck inside where not even casual cleaning and vacuuming can remove it.
This is beneficial when space is at a premium, for example in small apartments and student dorms.
This large-capacity main battery should not be confused with the much smaller battery nearly all computers use to run the real-time clock and to store the BIOS configuration in the CMOS memory when the computer is off.
This prototype was based on the IBM PALM processor (Put All Logic In Microcode or 128 bit).
This tends to limit the use of laptops for gaming and entertainment, two fields which have constantly escalating hardware demands, and because the integrated chipset is very difficult to upgrade for a standard user, laptops may grow obsolete quickly for use in gaming and entertainment.
Those laptops have high performance at the cost of being likely to have overheating problems, and having less battery life.
Those users uneducated in the relevant fields are those the most affected by incompatibilities, especially if they attempt to connect their laptops with incompatible hardware or power adapters.
Typical battery life for standard laptops is two to five hours of light-duty use, but may drop to as little as one hour when doing power-intensive tasks.
Waste heat is usually exhausted away from the device operator, towards the rear or sides of the device.
While Windows machines fell $129 in these seven months, Mac laptop ASP declined just $12 from $1,524 to $1,512.
While the devices range in size from below 5 inches to over 12, most are between 9 and 11 inches (280 mm) and weigh between 0.
With few exceptions, laptop components can rarely be swapped between laptops of competing manufacturers, or even between laptops from the different product-lines of the same manufacturer.
Yet, as it ages, the battery's energy storage will dissipate progressively until it lasts only a few minutes.
3" 1600 × 900 displays make items onscreen rather large, and tend to have poor image quality due in part to low contrast compared to their higher-resolution counterparts such as 15.
3" and 14", improving multitasking capability, but it is rare for such displays to have noticeably better contrast.
4"), have relatively few ports (but in any case include two or more USB ports), employ expensive components designed for minimal size and best power efficiency, and utilize advanced materials and construction methods.
5 × 11 inches), but later "A4-size" laptops were introduced, which were the width of a standard ISO 216 A4 sheet of paper (297 mm, or about 11.
5" drives in the late 1980s, and became common in laptops starting with the introduction of 2.
5-inch hard drives) and to less heat production leading to use of fewer and slower cooling fans.
6 GHz) performed about 30% worse than the slowest-performing desktop CPU (AMD Sempron 64 3000+, at 1.
8 and 2 kg (2 to 5 pounds); the battery life can exceed 10 hours when a large battery or an additional battery pack is installed.
A 2010 study of 29 males published in Fertility and Sterility found that men who kept their laptops on their laps experienced scrotal hyperthermia (overheating) in which their scrotal temperatures increased by up to 2 °C.
A common accessory for laptops is a laptop sleeve or laptop case, which provides a degree of protection from drops or impacts.
A common practical solution to this problem is to place the laptop on a table or desk, or to use a book or pillow between the body and the laptop.
A desktop-replacement computer is a laptop that provides all of the capabilities of a desktop computer, with a similar level of performance.
A docking station is a relatively bulky laptop accessory that contains multiple ports, expansion slots, and bays for fixed or removable drives.
A rugged (or ruggedized) laptop is designed to reliably operate in harsh usage conditions such as strong vibrations, extreme temperatures, and wet or dusty environments.
A study by State University of New York researchers found that heat generated from laptops can increase the temperature of the lap of male users when balancing the computer on their lap, potentially putting sperm count at risk.
A subnotebook or ultraportable is a laptop designed and marketed with an emphasis on portability (small size, low weight and often longer battery life) that retains performance close to that of a standard notebook.
Acer / Gateway / eMachines / Packard Bell: TravelMate, Extensa, Ferrari and Aspire; Packard Bell Easynote; Chromebook
As the personal computer became feasible in the early 1970s, the idea of a portable personal computer followed.
At the end of 2011, 10 percent of mobile users are using up 90 percent of wireless bandwidth, super/extreme users mostly use a laptop with 64 percent share, and that is followed by 33 percent of smartphone users (excluding a few iPad users).
Battery life is limited because the capacity drops with time, eventually requiring replacement after as little as a year.
Battery: Current laptops utilize lithium ion batteries, with more recent models using the new lithium polymer technology.
Battery: a charged laptop can continue to be used in case of a power outage and is not affected by short power interruptions and blackouts.
Because of their small and flat keyboard and trackpad pointing devices, prolonged use of laptops can cause repetitive strain injury.
Central processing unit (CPU): Laptop CPUs have advanced power-saving features and produce less heat than desktop processors, but are not as powerful.
Connectivity: A proliferation of Wi-Fi wireless networks and cellular broadband data services (HSDPA, EVDO and others) combined with a near-ubiquitous support by laptops means that a laptop can have easy Internet and local network connectivity while remaining mobile.
Cooling: Waste heat from operation is difficult to remove in the compact internal space of a laptop.
Display: Most modern laptops feature 13 inches (33 cm) or larger color active matrix displays based on CCFL or LED lighting with resolutions of 1280×800 (16:10) or 1366 × 768 (16:9) pixels and above.
Displays reached VGA resolution by 1988 (Compaq SLT/286), and colour screens started becoming a common upgrade in 1991 with increases in resolution and screen size occurring frequently until the introduction of 17"-screen laptops in 2003.
Expansion cards: A PC Card (formerly PCMCIA) or ExpressCard bay for expansion cards is often present on laptops to allow adding and removing functionality, even when the laptop is powered on.
Features that certain early models of laptops used to have but not available anymore in most recent models of laptops include:
For Microsoft Windows systems, the average selling price (ASP) showed a decline in 2008/2009, possibly due to low-cost netbooks, drawing US$689 at U.
For anyone not buying a new screen, a simple method to reduce risk of spinal injury is to position the laptop's screen in a manner that an obtuse angle (more than 90 degrees open) is formed.
Full-size Laptop: A laptop large enough to accommodate a "full-size" keyboard (a keyboard with the minimum QWERTY key layout, which is at least 13.
Given their size and use of more rudimentary components compared to notebooks and subnotebooks, netbooks also generally have a smaller-capacity hard drive, slower CPU, and a lower-profile RAM capacity.
Hair of the dog or "Recovery drinking", the practice of drinking off a hangover, mainly amongst students
Handheld PC: A Handheld PC, or H/PC for short, is a term for a computer built around a form factor which is smaller than any standard laptop computer.
Hard (nautical), a firm or paved beach or slope convenient for hauling vessels out of the water
Heat generated from using a laptop on the lap can also cause skin discoloration on the thighs known as "toasted skin syndrome.
However, for Internet browsing and typical office applications, where the computer spends the majority of its time waiting for the next user input, even relatively low-end laptops (such as Netbooks) can be fast enough for some users.
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In general, components other than the four categories listed above are not intended to be replaceable; a few, such as processors, follow their own standards but are difficult to replace because of other factors (for example, in the case of processors cooling and access limitations can make upgrades very difficult or impossible.
In particular, motherboards are almost always make and model-specific: locations of ports, and design and placement of internal components are not standard.
In the early 2000s, desktops were more powerful, easier to upgrade, and much cheaper than laptops, but in later years laptops have become much cheaper and more powerful than before, and most peripherals are available in laptop-compatible USB versions which minimise the need for internal add-on cards.
Input: A pointing stick, touchpad or both are used to control the position of the cursor on the screen, and an integrated keyboard is used for typing.
Intel, Asus, Compal, Quanta and some other laptop manufacturers have created the Common Building Block standard for laptop parts to address some of the inefficiencies caused by the lack of standards.
Laptop charging trolleys, also known as laptop trolleys or laptop carts, are mobile storage containers to charge laptops, netbooks and tablet computers en masse.
Laptops operating in harsh usage environments and conditions, such as strong vibrations, extreme temperatures and wet or dusty conditions differ from those used in space in that they are custom designed for the task and do not use commercial off-the-shelf hardware.
Laptops rely on extremely compact cooling systems involving a fan and heat sink that can fail from blockage caused by accumulated airborne dust and debris.
Memory (RAM): SO-DIMM memory modules that are usually found in laptops are about half the size of desktop DIMMs.
Miniaturization: a comparison of a desktop computer motherboard (ATX form factor) to a motherboard from a 13" laptop (2008 unibody Macbook)
Most higher-end laptops are sufficiently powerful for high-resolution movie playback, some 3D gaming and video editing and encoding.
Most laptops have a Kensington security slot, which can be used to tether them to a desk or other immovable object with a security cable and lock.
Netbooks are laptops that are light-weight, economical, energy-efficient and especially suited for wireless communication and Internet access.
Netbooks are mostly sold with light-weight operating systems such as Linux, Windows XP and Windows 7 Starter edition.
Original external components are expensive, and usually proprietary and non-interchangeable; other parts are inexpensive—a power jack can cost a few dollars—but their replacement may require extensive disassembly and reassembly of the laptop by a technician.
Portable computers, originally monochrome CRT-based and developed into the modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications such as the military, accountants and sales representatives.
Ports: several USB ports, an external monitor port (VGA, DVI, mini-DisplayPort or HDMI), audio in/out, and an Ethernet network port are found on most laptops.
Power supply: Laptops are typically powered by an internal rechargeable battery that is charged using an external power supply, which outputs a DC voltage typically in the range of 7.
Productivity: Using a laptop in places where a desktop PC can not be used, and at times that would otherwise be wasted.
Recovery International, a self-help mental health program based on the work of the late Abraham A.
Recovery Version of the Bible, a translation of the Holy Bible with footnotes published by Living Stream Ministry
Recovery time, the period of time taken for a heat store to return to its operating temperature after all the heat has been removed
Recovery, a piece of software in Android (operating system) smartphones that enables the owner to recover from software damage
Removable media drives: A DVD/CD reader/writer drive is nearly universal on full-sized models, and is common on thin-and-light models; it is uncommon on subnotebooks and unknown on netbooks.
Rugged: Engineered to operate in tough conditions (mechanical shocks, extreme temperatures, wet and dusty environments, etc.
Some brands are specializing in a particular class of laptops, such as gaming laptops (Alienware), selling high-performance laptops (HP Envy), netbooks (EeePC) and laptops for children (OLPC).
Some laptops in this class use a limited range of desktop components to provide better performance for the same price at the expense of battery life; a few of those models have no battery.
Some manufacturers have attempted to overcome these weak points by adopting innovative methods such as a sliding design in which the screen slides up from the slate-like position and locks into place to provide the laptop mode.
Some upgrades can be performed by adding external devices, either USB or in expansion card format such as PC Card.
Tablet laptops have the advantage to offer the keyboard and pointing device (usually a trackpad) of older laptops, for users who do not use the touchscreen display as the primary method of input.
The IBM 5100, the first commercially available portable computer, appeared in September 1975, and was based on the SCAMP prototype.
The basic components of laptops are similar in function to their desktop counterparts, but are miniaturized, adapted to mobile use, and designed for low power consumption.
The big breakthrough for netbook computers did not happen until the weight, diagonal form-factor and price combination of < 1 kg, < 9", < U.
The design features found in rugged laptops include rubber sheeting under the keyboard keys, sealed port and connector covers, passive cooling, superbright displays easily readable in daylight, cases and frames made of magnesium alloys that are much stronger than plastic found in commercial laptops, and solid-state storage devices or hard disc drives that are shock mounted to withstand constant vibrations.
The following list summarizes the differences and distinguishing features of laptop components in comparison to desktop personal computer parts:
The integrated screen often requires users to lean over for a better view, which can cause neck and/or spinal injuries.
The major brands usually offer good service and support, including well-executed documentation and driver downloads that will remain available for many years after a particular laptop model is no longer produced.
The ruggedized Grid Compass computer was used since the early days of the Space Shuttle program.
The term "subnotebook" is reserved to laptops that run general-purpose desktop operating systems such as Windows, Linux or Mac OS X, rather than specialized software such as Windows CE, Palm OS or Internet Tablet OS.
The trolleys can be wheeled between rooms and classrooms so that anyone in a particular building can access fully charged IT equipment.
There are a multitude of laptop brands and manufacturers; several major brands, offering notebooks in various classes, are listed in the box to the right.
To achieve the size and weight reductions, ultraportables use 13" and smaller screens (down to 6.
Typical modern convertible laptops have a complex joint between the keyboard housing and the display permitting the display panel to swivel and then lie flat on the keyboard housing.
Typically, the base of a tablet laptop attaches to the display at a single joint called a swivel hinge or rotating hinge.
Ultra-mobile PC: An ultra-mobile PC (ultra-mobile personal computer or UMPC) is a small form factor version of a pen computer, a class of laptop whose specifications were launched by Microsoft and Intel in spring 2006.
Up-to-date information: If a person has more than one desktop PC, a problem of synchronization arises: changes made on one computer are not automatically propagated to the others.
Video display controller: On standard laptops the video controller is usually integrated into the chipset to conserve power.
While the performance of mainstream desktops and laptops is comparable, and the cost of laptops has fallen more rapidly than desktops, laptops remain more expensive than desktop PCs at the same performance level.
With primary focus given to web browsing and e-mailing, netbooks are intended to "rely heavily on the Internet for remote access to web-based applications" and are targeted increasingly at cloud computing users who rely on servers and require a less powerful client computer.
 They are bulkier and not as portable as other laptops, and their operation time on batteries is typically shorter; they are intended to be used as compact and transportable alternatives to a desktop computer.
 A laptop utilizes most of the same components as a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device such as a touchpad (also known as a trackpad) and/or a pointing stick, and speakers into a single unit.
 They may be accessible from the bottom of the laptop for ease of upgrading, or placed in locations not intended for user replacement such as between the keyboard and the motherboard.
 There is a wide range of CPUs designed for laptops available from Intel (Pentium M, Celeron M, Intel Core and Core 2 Duo), AMD (Athlon, Turion 64, and Sempron), VIA Technologies, Transmeta and others.
 Higher-end laptops and desktop replacements in particular often come with dedicated graphics processors on the motherboard or as an internal expansion card.
 Physical portability allows that a laptop can be used in many places— not only at home and at the office, but also during commuting and flights, in coffee shops, in lecture halls and libraries, at clients' location or at a meeting room, etc.
 The upper limits of performance of laptops remain much lower than the highest-end desktops (especially "workstation class" machines with two processor sockets), and "bleeding-edge" features usually appear first in desktops and only then, as the underlying technology matures, are adapted to laptops.
 As of mid-2010, at the lowest end, the cheapest netbooks—between US$200–300—remain more expensive than the lowest-end desktop computers (around US$200) only when those are priced without a screen/monitor.
 Usage of separate, external ergonomic keyboards and pointing devices is recommended to prevent injury when working for long periods of time; they can be connected to a laptop easily by USB or via a docking station.
 The repair costs of a failed motherboard or LCD panel often exceed the value of a used laptop.
 The Epson had a LCD screen, a rechargeable battery, and a calculator-size printer in a 1.
 Therefore, there often are identical models available both from a major label and from a low-profile ODM in-house brand.
 Around 109 million notebook PCs shipped worldwide in 2007, a growth of 33% compared to 2006.
 The third quarter of 2008 was the first time when notebook PC shipments exceeded desktops, with 38.
 Mac and other laptop computers continue to be flown aboard manned spaceflights though the only long duration flight certified computer for the International Space Station is the ThinkPad.
 From 1983 onward, several new input techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the touchpad (Gavilan SC, 1983), the pointing stick (IBM ThinkPad 700, 1992) and handwriting recognition (Linus Write-Top, 1987).
Secondary device temperature monitoring may reduce performance or trigger an emergency shutdown if it is unable to dissipate heat, such as if the laptop were to be left running and placed inside a carrying case.
^ "Identical Laptops, Different Prices: Don't Be Fooled by Branding" (Registration required for the full article).
^ Almost all laptops contain a Wi-Fi interface; broadband cellular devices are available widely as extension cards and USB devices, and also as internal cards in select models.
^ For an example, on a CPU-intensive task (video encoding), the fastest-performing mobile CPU as of early 2008 (Intel Core 2 Extreme X7800, 2.
^ For example, a review of the MSI Wind Netbook says that "The device is rarely sluggish in general use.
^ For example, the video display cable and the backlight power cable that pass through the lid hinges to connect the motherboard to the screen will eventually break from repeated opening and closing of the lid.
^ In a comparison between laptop and desktop of equal cost, the desktop's System Benchmark Score was twice that of the laptop.
^ Sheynkin, Yefim; Yefim Sheynkin, Robert Welliver, Andrew Winer, Farshid Hajimirzaee, Hongshik Ahn, Kyewon Lee (8 November 2010).
^ The socketed CPUs are perhaps for the manufacturer's convenience, rather than the end-user, as some manufacturers try new CPUs in last year's laptop models with an eye toward selling upgrades rather than new laptops.
^ Worldwide notebook shipments grow 33% on year in 2007, says IDC, 31 January 2008, Yen Ting Chen, DigiTimes, retrieved at 12 September 2011