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Categories: InsuranceFinancial institutionsInformation, knowledge, and uncertaintyInstitutional investorsHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2012Articles with unsourced statements from July 2009Articles with unsourced statements from February 2009Articles with unsourced statements from September 2008 600 BCE when they created guilds called "benevolent societies" which cared for the families of deceased members, as well as paying funeral expenses of members.
A broker generally holds contracts with many insurers, thereby allowing the broker to "shop" the market for the best rates and coverage possible. A combined ratio of less than 100 percent indicates an underwriting profit, while anything over 100 indicates an underwriting loss. A company with a combined ratio over 100% may nevertheless remain profitable due to investment earnings. A home insurance policy in the US typically includes coverage for damage to the home and the owner's belongings, certain legal claims against the owner, and even a small amount of coverage for medical expenses of guests who are injured on the owner's property. A number of independent rating agencies provide information and rate the financial viability of insurance companies.
A number of religious groups, including the Amish and some Muslim groups, depend on support provided by their communities when disasters strike. A properly designed and underwritten Protected Self-Insurance Program reduces and stabilizes the cost of insurance and provides valuable risk management information. A single policy may cover risks in one or more of the categories set out below. Accordingly, life insurance is generally not considered to be indemnity insurance, but rather "contingent" insurance (i. Adam Smith described what is now called the Diamond – Water Paradox: diamonds command a higher price than water, yet water is essential for life, while diamonds are merely ornamentation.
Additionally, they may provide coverage of risks which is neither available nor offered in the traditional insurance market at reasonable prices. After producing rates, the insurer will use discretion to reject or accept risks through the underwriting process. Agents can be captive, meaning they write only for one company, or independent, meaning that they can issue policies from several companies. Airports may also appear under this subcategory, including air traffic control and refuelling operations for international airports through to smaller domestic exposures. All-risk insurance is different from peril-specific insurance that cover losses from only those perils listed in the policy.
Along the way this inevitably becomes related to other concepts such as the justice system and the welfare state. An insurance policy will set out in detail which perils are covered by the policy and which are not. An insurance premium paid currently provides coverage for losses that might arise many years in the future. An insurer is a company selling the insurance; the insured, or policyholder, is the person or entity buying the insurance policy. Annuities and pensions that pay a benefit for life are sometimes regarded as insurance against the possibility that a retiree will outlive his or her financial resources.
Any factor that causes a greater likelihood of loss should theoretically be charged a higher rate. As part of this balancing act, fraudulent insurance practices are a major business risk that must be managed and overcome. As per the section 4 of IRDA Act' 1999, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA), which was constituted by an act of parliament. Bear markets do cause insurers to shift away from investments and to toughen up their underwriting standards, so a poor economy generally means high insurance premiums. Because agents work directly for the insurance company, if there is a claim the agent may advise the client to the benefit of the insurance company.
Because of this, consumers are advised to select high deductibles and to not insure losses which would not cause a disruption in their life. Before insurance was established in the late 17th century, "friendly societies" existed in England, in which people donated amounts of money to a general sum that could be used for emergencies. Benjamin Franklin helped to popularize and make standard the practice of insurance, particularly against fire in the form of perpetual insurance. Builder's risk insurance is coverage that protects a person's or organization's insurable interest in materials, fixtures and/or equipment being used in the construction or renovation of a building or structure should those items sustain physical loss or damage from an insured peril. Builder's risk insurance is typically written on an "all risk" basis covering damage arising from any cause (including the negligence of the insured) not otherwise expressly excluded.
But a summary of its essence is that it is a collection of insurance coverages (including components of life insurance, disability income insurance, unemployment insurance, health insurance, and others), plus retirement savings, that requires participation by all citizens. By forcing everyone in society to be a policyholder and pay premiums, it ensures that everyone can become a claimant when or if he/she needs to. Capital constrains insurers' ability to sell earthquake insurance as well as wind insurance in hurricane zones. Captives may take the form of a "pure" entity (which is a 100% subsidiary of the self-insured parent company); of a "mutual" captive (which insures the collective risks of members of an industry); and of an "association" captive (which self-insures individual risks of the members of a professional, commercial or industrial association). Captives represent commercial, economic and tax advantages to their sponsors because of the reductions in costs they help create and for the ease of insurance risk management and the flexibility for cash flows they generate.
Cover is available for mortality or economic slaughter as a result of accident, illness or disease but can extend to include destruction by government order. Coverage is also afforded for liability to third parties arising from contamination of air, water, or land due to the sudden and accidental release of hazardous materials from the insured site. Coverage is typically for mortality as a result of accident, illness or disease but may extend to include infertility, in-transit loss, veterinary fees, and prospective foal. DBA is required for all US citizens, US residents, US Green Card holders, and all employees or subcontractors hired on overseas government contracts. Department of the Treasury and it monitors all aspects of the insurance industry, including identifying issues or gaps in the regulation of insurers that may contribute to a systemic crisis in the insurance industry or in the U.
Depending on the companies specific policies it might or might not cover the deductible as well. Disputes between insurers and insureds over the validity of claims or claims handling practices occasionally escalate into litigation (see insurance bad faith). Early versions were independently invented and patented by a major US auto insurance company, Progressive Auto Insurance (U. Europe has however seen a decline in premium income during the year in contrast to the growth seen in North America and Asia. Even if a provider were so irrational as to want to provide such coverage, it is against the public policy of most countries to allow such insurance to exist, and thus it is usually illegal.
Events that contain speculative elements, such as ordinary business risks or even purchasing a lottery ticket, are generally not considered insurable. Examples would include offering prizes to contestants who can make a half-court shot at a basketball game, or a hole-in-one at a golf tournament. Exceptions include Lloyd's of London, which is famous for insuring the life or health of actors, sports figures and other famous individuals. Financial reinsurance is a form of reinsurance that is primarily used for capital management rather than to transfer insurance risk. Float, or available reserve, is the amount of money on hand at any given moment that an insurer has collected in insurance premiums but has not paid out in claims.
For example, Dollar General is a general store or "five and dime" store that sets price points only at even amounts, such as exactly one, two, three, five, or ten dollars (among others). For example, a company can obtain crime insurance to cover losses arising from theft or embezzlement. For example, a homeowner's insurance policy will normally include liability coverage which protects the insured in the event of a claim brought by someone who slips and falls on the property; automobile insurance also includes an aspect of liability insurance that indemnifies against the harm that a crashing car can cause to others' lives, health, or property. For example, professional liability insurance in reference to the medical profession may be called medical malpractice insurance. For example, the will of the English colonist Robert Hayman mentions two "policies of insurance" taken out with the diocesan Chancellor of London, Arthur Duck.
For example, vehicle insurance would typically cover both the property risk (theft or damage to the vehicle) and the liability risk (legal claims arising from an accident). For instance the price of inflation-linked government securities in several countries is quoted as the actual price divided by a factor representing inflation since the security was issued. For instance, charities seeking to raise money may set different “target” levels for donations that reward donors with increases in status (e. For instance, insurers charge older people significantly higher premiums than they charge younger people for term life insurance. For marketing organizations seeking to make a profit, the hope is that price will exceed cost of production so that the organization can see financial gain from the transaction.
For policies that are complicated, where claims may be complex, the insured may take out a separate insurance policy add on, called loss recovery insurance, which covers the cost of a public adjuster in the case of a claim. For small losses these latter costs may be several times the size of the expected cost of losses. From a review of industry underwriting and marketing materials, court documents, and research by government agencies, industry and community groups, and academics, it is clear that race has long affected and continues to affect the policies and practices of the insurance industry. From the classical political economists to Michal Kalecki it was known that prices for industrial goods behaved differently from prices for agricultural goods, but this idea could be extended further to other broad classes of goods and services. Further, as the accounting profession formally recognizes in financial accounting standards, the premium cannot be so large that there is not a reasonable chance of a significant loss to the insurer.
Generally, an insurance contract includes, at a minimum, the following elements: identification of participating parties (the insurer, the insured, the beneficiaries), the premium, the period of coverage, the particular loss event covered, the amount of coverage (i. Generally, such an insurance company must submit its rates and policy forms to the state's insurance regulator to receive his or her prior approval, although whether an insurance company must receive prior approval depends upon the kind of insurance being written. Generally, under the NRRA, only the insured's home state may regulate and tax the excess line transaction. Guilds in the Middle Ages served a similar purpose, as did friendly societies during Victorian times. However, consumers have shown a tendency to prefer low deductibles and to prefer to insure relatively high-probability, small losses over low-probability, perhaps due to not understanding or ignoring the low-probability risk.
However, in some cases the benefit derived from tax deferral may be offset by a low return. However, since about 1996 insurers began to take a more active role in loss mitigation, such as through building codes. However, such a consultant must still work through brokers and/or agents in order to secure coverage for their clients. However, the use of such factors is often considered to be unfair or unlawfully discriminatory, and the reaction against this practice has in some instances led to political disputes about the ways in which insurers determine premiums and regulatory intervention to limit the factors used. However, treating insureds differently when there is no actuarially sound reason for doing so is unlawful discrimination.
However, with insurance brokers, the fee is usually paid in the form of commission from the insurer that is selected rather than directly from the client. Ideally, the time, place and cause of a loss should be clear enough that a reasonable person, with sufficient information, could objectively verify all three elements. If a government building was damaged, the cost of repair would be met from public funds because, in the long run, this was cheaper than paying insurance premiums. If a merchant received a loan to fund his shipment, he would pay the lender an additional sum in exchange for the lender's guarantee to cancel the loan should the shipment be stolen or lost at sea. If the registered amount exceeded 10,000 Derrik, he or she would receive an amount of twice as much.
If there is no such chance of loss, the transaction may have the form of insurance, but not the substance. If you are unsure if GAP coverage had been purchased, you should check your vehicle lease or purchase documentation. In 1752, he founded the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. In 1978, market reforms led to an increase in the market and by 1995 a comprehensive Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China[33] was passed, followed in 1998 by the formation of China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC), which has broad regulatory authority over the insurance market of China. In commercial fire insurance it is possible to find single properties whose total exposed value is well in excess of any individual insurer's capital constraint.
In fact, he admonished the other classical political economists (like Ricardo and Smith) for trying to make this proof. In order to be insurable, the risk insured against must meet certain characteristics in order to be an insurable risk. In practice it may well make economic sense to offer a product or service for sale at a higher price in a wealthy area than in a deprived area as the marginal utility of the asset for purchasers will be higher in the former. In reality, the price may be distorted by other factors, such as tax and other government regulations. In recent years, a number of insurance companies have become insolvent, leaving their policyholders with no coverage (or coverage only from a government-backed insurance pool or other arrangement with less attractive payouts for losses).
In recent years, some have called for a dual state and federal regulatory system (commonly referred to as the Optional federal charter (OFC)) for insurance similar to the banking industry. In response to these issues, many countries have enacted detailed statutory and regulatory regimes governing every aspect of the insurance business, including minimum standards for policies and the ways in which they may be advertised and sold. In response to this, the federal government created the National Flood Insurance Program which serves as the insurer of last resort. In some circumstances, cigarettes have been used as currency, for example in prisons, in times of hyperinflation, and in some places during World War 2. In some countries, insurers offer a package which may include liability and legal responsibility for injuries and property damage caused by members of the household, including pets.
In some geographical areas, the policy may exclude certain types of risks, such as flood or earthquake, that require additional coverage. In special cases, a government may authorize its use in protecting semi-private funds which are liable to tamper. In supportive communities where others can be trusted to follow community leaders, this tacit form of insurance can work. In that sense, they are the complement of life insurance and, from an underwriting perspective, are the mirror image of life insurance. In the 4th century BC, rates for the loans differed according to safe or dangerous times of year, implying an intuitive pricing of risk with an effect similar to insurance.
In the US and Canada, dental insurance is often part of an employer's benefits package, along with health insurance. In the US in the wake of 9/11, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act 2002 (TRIA) set up a federal Program providing a transparent system of shared public and private compensation for insured losses resulting from acts of terrorism. In the case of the majority of consumer goods and services, the distribution costs are quite a high proportion of the overall price, so the law may not be very useful. In the late 1680s, Edward Lloyd opened a coffee house that became a popular haunt of ship owners, merchants, and ships' captains, and thereby a reliable source of the latest shipping news. In this manner the community can even out the extreme differences in insurability that exist among its members.
In turn these quantities are determined by the marginal utility of the asset to different buyers and to different sellers. Incoming claims are classified based on severity and are assigned to adjusters whose settlement authority varies with their knowledge and experience. Insurance as we know it today can be traced to the Great Fire of London, which in 1666 devoured more than 13,000 houses. Insurance companies will often try to encourage the person back into employment in preference to and before declaring them unable to work at all and therefore totally disabled. Insurance is a commercial enterprise and a major part of the financial services industry, but individual entities can also self-insure through saving money for possible future losses.
Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for payment. Insurance policies that earn interest are generally considered to be a form of riba[43] (usury) and some consider even policies that do not earn interest to be a form of gharar (speculation). Insurance premiums from many insureds are used to fund accounts reserved for later payment of claims — in theory for a relatively few claimants — and for overhead costs. Insurance premiums need to cover both the expected cost of losses, plus the cost of issuing and administering the policy, adjusting losses, and supplying the capital needed to reasonably assure that the insurer will be able to pay claims. Insurance scholars have typically used morale hazard to refer to the increased loss due to unintentional carelessness and moral hazard to refer to increased risk due to intentional carelessness or indifference.
Insurers start investing insurance premiums as soon as they are collected and continue to earn interest or other income on them until claims are paid out. It also rates financial instruments issued by the insurance company, such as bonds, notes, and securitization products. It also showed that African-Americans and Hispanics are substantially overrepresented in the lowest credit scores, and substantially underrepresented in the highest, while Caucasians and Asians are more evenly spread across the scores. It became the meeting place for parties wishing to insure cargoes and ships, and those willing to underwrite such ventures. It is a broad spectrum of insurance that a number of other types of insurance could be classified, such as auto, workers compensation, and some liability insurances.
It is purchased by organizations who do not want to assume 100% of the liability for losses arising from the plans. It is usually issued in conjunction with a search of the public records performed at the time of a real estate transaction. Jahez, a historian and writer, writes in one of his books on ancient Iran: "[W]henever the owner of the present is in trouble or wants to construct a building, set up a feast, have his children married, etc. Just as there is a potential conflict of interest with a broker, an agent has a different type of conflict. Liability insurance providers do not provide coverage for liability arising from intentional torts committed by or at the direction of the insured.
Liability policies typically cover only the negligence of the insured, and will not apply to results of wilful or intentional acts by the insured. Life insurance policies often allow the option of having the proceeds paid to the beneficiary either in a lump sum cash payment or an annuity. Like a mortgage broker, these companies are paid a fee by the customer to shop around for the best insurance policy amongst many companies. Likewise, the bid price or buying price is the quantity of payment offered by a buyer of goods or services, although this meaning is more common in asset or financial markets than in consumer markets. Many insurers in the US do not provide flood insurance in some parts of the country.
Many marine insurance underwriters will include "time element" coverage in such policies, which extends the indemnity to cover loss of profit and other business expenses attributable to the delay caused by a covered loss. Marginalist theory lacked anything like a theory of the social framework of real market functioning, and criticism sparked off by the capital controversy initiated by Piero Sraffa revealed that most of the foundational tenets of the marginalist theory of value either reduced to tautologies, or that the theory was true only if counter-factual conditions applied. Merchants whose goods were being shipped together would pay a proportionally divided premium which would be used to reimburse any merchant whose goods were deliberately jettisoned in order to lighten the ship and save it from total loss. More complex multivariate analyses are sometimes used when multiple characteristics are involved and a univariate analysis could produce confounded results. Mortgage insurance is a form of credit insurance, although the name "credit insurance" more often is used to refer to policies that cover other kinds of debt.
Mutual companies are owned by the policyholders, while stockholders (who may or may not own policies) own stock insurance companies. National Insurance Academy, Pune is apex insurance capacity builder institute promoted with support from Ministry of Finance and by LIC, Life & General Insurance compnies. Neoclassical economists sought to clarify choices open to producers and consumers in market situations, and thus "fears that cleavages in the economic structure might be unbridgeable could be suppressed". Not only did his company warn against certain fire hazards, it refused to insure certain buildings where the risk of fire was too great, such as all wooden houses. Occupational disease, for instance, may involve prolonged exposure to injurious conditions where no specific time, place or cause is identifiable.
Of the value of £100 each, one relates to the safe arrival of Hayman's ship in Guyana and the other is in regard to "one hundred pounds assured by the said Doctor Arthur Ducke on my life". Often informal or formally intrinsic to local religious customs, this type of insurance has survived to the present day in some countries where a modern money economy with its financial instruments is not widespread. On one hand it can increase fraud, on the other it can help societies and individuals prepare for catastrophes and mitigate the effects of catastrophes on both households and societies. One solution offered to this paradox is through the theory of marginal utility proposed by Carl Menger, one of the founders of the Austrian School of economics. Other stores (such as dollar stores, pound stores, euro stores, 100-yen stores, and so forth) only have a single price point ($1, £1, 1€, ¥100), though in some cases this price may purchase more than one of some very small items.
Other stores will have a policy of setting most of their prices ending in 99 cents or pence. Periodic payments are made directly to the insured until the home is rebuilt or a specified time period has elapsed. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. Probability of loss is generally an empirical exercise, while cost has more to do with the ability of a reasonable person in possession of a copy of the insurance policy and a proof of loss associated with a claim presented under that policy to make a reasonably definite and objective evaluation of the amount of the loss recoverable as a result of the claim. Purchase insurance can cover individual purchase protection, warranties, guarantees, care plans and even mobile phone insurance.
Quotation marks are punctuation marks used in text to indicate the words of another speaker or writer. Racial profiling or redlining has a long history in the property insurance industry in the United States. Rates depend on location and hence the likelihood of an earthquake, as well as the construction of the home. Rather, for Marx, price equal the cost of production (capital-cost and labor-costs) plus the average rate of profit. Rating for different risk characteristics involves at the most basic level comparing the losses with "loss relativities" - a policy with twice as many losses would therefore be charged twice as much.
Risk management, the practice of appraising and controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice. Short-term and long-term disability policies are available to individuals, but considering the expense, long-term policies are generally obtained only by those with at least six-figure incomes, such as doctors, lawyers, etc. Short-term disability insurance covers a person for a period typically up to six months, paying a stipend each month to cover medical bills and other necessities. Similar to an insurance consultant, an 'insurance broker' also shops around for the best insurance policy amongst many companies. Since many UK government buildings have been sold to property companies, and rented back, this arrangement is now less common and may have disappeared altogether.
So if the average rate of profit (return on capital investment) is 22% then prices would reflect cost-of-production plus 22%. So long as an insurer maintains adequate funds set aside for anticipated losses (called reserves), the remaining margin is an insurer's profit. Some insurance industry insiders, most notably Hank Greenberg, do not believe that it is forever possible to sustain a profit from float without an underwriting profit as well, but this opinion is not universally held. Some policies, such as annuities and endowment policies, are financial instruments to accumulate or liquidate wealth when it is needed. Squires (2003) Racial Profiling, Insurance Style: Insurance Redlining and the Uneven Development of Metropolitan Areas Journal of Urban Affairs Volume 25 Issue 4 Page 391-410, November 2003
Standard line insurance companies usually charge lower premiums than excess line insurers and may sell directly to individual insureds. Such insurance is normally very limited in the scope of problems that are covered by the policy. Such losses, if covered by conventional insurance, mean having to pay a premium that includes loadings for the company's general expenses, cost of putting the policy on the books, acquisition expenses, premium taxes, and contingencies. Such properties are generally shared among several insurers, or are insured by a single insurer who syndicates the risk into the reinsurance market. Such risks include crop loss or damage caused by weather, hail, drought, frost damage, insects, or disease.
The Association of British Insurers (gathering 400 insurance companies and 94% of UK insurance services) has almost 20% of the investments in the London Stock Exchange. The Greeks and Romans introduced burial insurance circa 600 AD when they organized guilds called "benevolent societies" which cared for the surviving families and paid funeral expenses of members upon death. The Hartford insurance company, for example, recently had to pay $80 million to an independent inventor, Bancorp Services, in order to settle a patent infringement and theft of trade secret lawsuit for a type of corporate owned life insurance product invented and patented by Bancorp. The Sun Insurance Office 1710-1960: The History of Two and a half Centuries of British Insurance. The US and Japan alone accounted for 40% of world insurance, much higher than their 7% share of the global population.
The adjuster must obtain legal counsel for the insured (either inside "house" counsel or outside "panel" counsel), monitor litigation that may take years to complete, and appear in person or over the telephone with settlement authority at a mandatory settlement conference when requested by the judge. The adjuster undertakes an investigation of each claim, usually in close cooperation with the insured, determines if coverage is available under the terms of the insurance contract, and if so, the reasonable monetary value of the claim, and authorizes payment. The amount to be charged for a certain amount of insurance coverage is called the premium. The behavior of non-profit organizations, such as charities, educational institutions and industry trade groups, can be described as setting prices. The concept requires that the insured have a "stake" in the loss or damage to the life or property insured.
The credit scores were also found to predict risk within each of the ethnic groups, leading the FTC to conclude that the scoring models are not solely proxies for redlining. The current state insurance regulatory framework has its roots in the 19th century, when New Hampshire appointed the first insurance commissioner in 1851. The devastating effects of the fire converted the development of insurance "from a matter of convenience into one of urgency, a change of opinion reflected in Sir Christopher Wren's inclusion of a site for 'the Insurance Office' in his new plan for London in 1667. The existence and success of companies using insurance agents is likely due to improved and personalized service. The fee paid by the insured to the insurer for assuming the risk is called the premium.
The final premium is based on the insured's actual loss experience during the policy term, sometimes subject to a minimum and maximum premium, with the final premium determined by a formula. The former is more primitive and the insurance in such economies entails agreements of mutual aid. The global insurance industry was sufficiently capitalised to withstand the financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 and most insurance companies restored their capital to pre-crisis levels by the end of 2010. The insurance tradition was performed each year in Norouz (beginning of the Iranian New Year); the heads of different ethnic groups as well as others willing to take part, presented gifts to the monarch. The insured entities are therefore protected from risk for a fee, with the fee being dependent upon the frequency and severity of the event occurring.
The insured receives a contract, called the insurance policy, which details the conditions and circumstances under which the insured will be financially compensated. The insurer may require that the claim be filed on its own proprietary forms, or may accept claims on a standard industry form, such as those produced by ACORD. The loss should be pure, in the sense that it results from an event for which there is only the opportunity for cost. The main reason for the distinction between the two types of company is that life, annuity, and pension business is very long-term in nature — coverage for life assurance or a pension can cover risks over many decades. The most obvious example is in pricing a loan, when the cost will be expressed as the percentage rate of interest.
The perception that there is a transformation problem in Marx stems from the injection of Walrasian equilibrium theory into Marxism where there is no such thing as equilibrium. The policy may include inventory, or this can be bought as a separate policy, especially for people who rent housing. The policy pays the policy holder for covered accounts receivable if the debtor defaults on payment. The policy usually covers the costs of cleanup and may include coverage for releases from underground storage tanks. The program was extended until the end of 2014 by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act 2007 (TRIPRA).
The protection offered by a liability insurance policy is twofold: a legal defense in the event of a lawsuit commenced against the policyholder and indemnification (payment on behalf of the insured) with respect to a settlement or court verdict. The rate at which patents have issued has steadily risen from 15 in 2002 to 44 in 2006. The rationale for the differential treatment goes to the heart of the risk a life insurer takes: Old people are likely to die sooner than young people, so the risk of loss (the insured's death) is greater in any given period of time and therefore the risk premium must be higher to cover the greater risk. The return to growth and record premiums generated during the year followed two years of decline in real terms. The risk presented by any given person is assumed collectively by the community who all bear the cost of rebuilding lost property and supporting people whose needs are suddenly greater after a loss of some kind.
The role and powers of the Chinese insurance regulatory commission in the administration of insurance law in China. The term property insurance may, like casualty insurance, be used as a broad category of various subtypes of insurance, some of which are listed below: The total amount of interest payable depends upon the loan amount and the period of the loan. The use-value was supposed to give some measure of usefulness, later refined as marginal benefit (which is marginal utility counted in common units of value) while exchange value was the measure of how much one good was in terms of another, namely what is now called relative price. There are two main types of legal expenses insurance: before the event insurance and after the event insurance.
There is hardly any point in paying such costs unless the protection offered has real value to a buyer. Thereafter an insurance company will collect historical loss data, bring the loss data to present value, and compare these prior losses to the premium collected in order to assess rate adequacy. These new insurance contracts allowed insurance to be separated from investment, a separation of roles that first proved useful in marine insurance. These targets can be seen as prices if they are interpreted as specifying a cost that must be paid by buyers (donors) in order to obtain something of value. They are regulated by state laws, which include restrictions on rates and forms, and which aim to protect consumers and the public from unfair or abusive practices.
Third party administrators are companies that perform underwriting and sometimes claims handling services for insurance companies. This can be done on a formal basis by establishing a separate fund into which funds are deposited on a periodic basis, or by simply forgoing the purchase of available insurance and paying out-of-pocket. This coverage is marketed for those who put low down payments, have high interest rates on their loans, and those with 60 month or longer terms. This coverage typically includes expenses related to medical treatment and loss of wages, as well as disability and death benefits. This definition can sometimes be extended to include some of the risks of the parent company's customers.
This depends upon the insuring company, the type of policy and other variables (mortality, market return, etc. This essentially states that the cost difference between the locations cannot be greater than that representing shipping, taxes, other distribution costs etc. This is a large, complicated topic that engenders tremendous debate, which can be further studied in the following articles (and others): This leads to widespread use of life insurance as a tax-efficient method of saving as well as protection in the event of early death. This may include specialized forms of insurance such as fire insurance, flood insurance, earthquake insurance, home insurance, inland marine insurance or boiler insurance.
This requested amount is often called the asking price or selling price, while the actual payment may be called the transaction price or traded price. This tendency to swing between profitable and unprofitable periods over time is commonly known as the underwriting, or insurance, cycle. This value does not relate to price in a simple manner, and the difficulty of the conversion of the mass of values into the actual prices is known as the transformation problem. This would then result in a much more realistic theory of price and of real behavior in response to prices. Thus it can be argued that the most basic and general definition of price is that expressed in money, and that the exchange ratio between two goods is simply derived from the two individual prices.
To reduce their own financial exposure, insurance companies have contractual clauses that mitigate their obligation to provide coverage if the insured engages in behavior that grossly magnifies their risk of loss or liability. Today, Lloyd's of London remains the leading market (note that it is an insurance market rather than a company) for marine and other specialist types of insurance, but it operates rather differently than the more familiar kinds of insurance. Typically, courts construe ambiguities in insurance policies against the insurance company and in favor of coverage under the policy. Under United States tax law, for example, most owners of variable annuities and variable life insurance can invest their premium payments in the stock market and defer or eliminate paying any taxes on their investments until withdrawals are made. Under a stop-loss policy, the insurance company becomes liable for losses that exceed certain limits called deductibles.
Under an "indemnity" policy the homeowner would have to come up with the $10,000 to pay for the visitor's fall and then would be "indemnified" by the insurance carrier for the out of pocket costs (the $10,000). Under this plan, the current year's premium is based partially (or wholly) on the current year's losses, although the premium adjustments may take months or years beyond the current year's expiration date. Underwriting performance is measured by something called the "combined ratio"[9] which is the ratio of expenses/losses to premiums. Unlike a broker, who represents the policyholder, an agent represents the insurance company from whom the policyholder buys. We know of two types of economies in human societies: natural or non-monetary economies (using barter and trade with no centralized nor standardized set of financial instruments) and more modern monetary economies (with markets, currency, financial instruments and so on).
What that "stake" is will be determined by the kind of insurance involved and the nature of the property ownership or relationship between the persons. When a car is used as collateral for a loan the lender usually requires specific coverage. When a gift was worth more than 10,000 Derrik (Achaemenian gold coin) the issue was registered in a special office. When something happens which triggers the need for legal action, it is known as "the event". When the owner of the cargo and the carrier are separate corporations, marine cargo insurance typically compensates the owner of cargo for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, etc.
While in theory insurers could encourage investment in loss reduction, some commentators have argued that in practice insurers had historically not aggressively pursued loss control measures - particularly to prevent disaster losses such as hurricanes - because of concerns over rate reductions and legal battles. While on the surface it appears the broker represents the buyer (not the insurance company), and typically counsels the buyer on appropriate coverage and policy limitations, in the vast majority of cases a broker's compensation comes in the form of a commission as a percentage of the insurance premium, creating a conflict of interest in that the broker's financial interest is tilted towards encouraging an insured to purchase more insurance than might be necessary at a higher price. While this is true for all insurance, for small, frequent losses the transaction costs may exceed the benefit of volatility reduction that insurance otherwise affords. With premium income of $1,620bn, Europe was the most important region in 2010, followed by North America $1,409bn and Asia $1,161bn. With the continuation of the gradual recovery of the global economy, it is likely the insurance industry will continue to see growth in premium income both in industrialised countries and emerging markets in 2011.
" Will of Robert Hayman, 1628:Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Catalogue Reference PROB 11/163 "[17] A number of attempted fire insurance schemes came to nothing, but in 1681 Nicholas Barbon, and eleven associates, established England's first fire insurance company, the 'Insurance Office for Houses', at the back of the Royal Exchange. ) Although prices could be quoted as quantities of other goods or services this sort of barter exchange is rarely seen. ) becomes the 'insured' party once risk is assumed by an 'insurer', the insuring party, by means of a contract, called an insurance policy. , 2001, The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal, Baltimore:Johns Hopkins University Press, 259.
, insurance in a modern money economy, in which insurance is part of the financial sphere), early methods of transferring or distributing risk were practised by Chinese and Babylonian traders as long ago as the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, respectively. , insurance policies not bundled with loans or other kinds of contracts) were invented in Genoa in the 14th century, as were insurance pools backed by pledges of landed estates. , negative differential treatment of) potential insureds in the risk evaluation and premium-setting process is a necessary by-product of the fundamentals of insurance underwriting. , new entity or an entity that does not have an adequate loss history, an entity with unique risk characteristics, or an entity that has a loss history that does not fit the underwriting requirements of the standard lines insurance market). , the amount to be paid to the insured or beneficiary in the event of a loss), and exclusions (events not covered).
, workers' compensation and personal automobile liability, are subject to statutory requirements that injured parties have direct access to coverage. 9/11 was a major insurance loss, but there were disputes over the World Trade Center's insurance policy A recent example of a new insurance product that is patented is Usage Based auto insurance. Accidental loss: The event that constitutes the trigger of a claim should be fortuitous, or at least outside the control of the beneficiary of the insurance. Achaemenian monarchs of Ancient Persia were the first to insure their people and made it official by registering the insuring process in governmental notary offices.
Adjusting liability insurance claims is particularly difficult because there is a third party involved, the plaintiff, who is under no contractual obligation to cooperate with the insurer and may in fact regard the insurer as a deep pocket. Affordable premium: If the likelihood of an insured event is so high, or the cost of the event so large, that the resulting premium is large relative to the amount of protection offered, it is not likely that the insurance will be purchased, even if on offer. All states have provisions in their rate regulation laws or in their fair trade practice acts that prohibit unfair discrimination, often called redlining, in setting rates and making insurance available. All-risk insurance is an insurance that covers a wide-range of incidents and perils, except those noted in the policy. An "indemnity" policy will never pay claims until the insured has paid out of pocket to some third party; for example, a visitor to your home slips on a floor that you left wet and sues you for $10,000 and wins.
An automatic variable (which may be defined in the C programming language using the "auto" keyword) An independent insurance consultant advises insureds on a fee-for-service retainer, similar to an attorney, and thus offers completely independent advice, free of the financial conflict of interest of brokers and/or agents. An insurance company may inadvertently find that its insureds may not be as risk-averse as they might otherwise be (since, by definition, the insured has transferred the risk to the insurer), a concept known as moral hazard. An insurance underwriter's job is to evaluate a given risk as to the likelihood that a loss will occur. Annuities provide a stream of payments and are generally classified as insurance because they are issued by insurance companies, are regulated as insurance, and require the same kinds of actuarial and investment management expertise that life insurance requires.
As William Barber put it, human volition, the human subject, was "brought to the centre of the stage" by marginalist economics, as a bargaining tool. At the most basic level, initial ratemaking involves looking at the frequency and severity of insured perils and the expected average payout resulting from these perils. Auto insurance protects the policyholder against financial loss in the event of an incident involving a vehicle they own, such as in a traffic collision. Aviation insurance protects aircraft hulls and spares, and associated liability risks, such as passenger and third-party liability. Boiler insurance (also known as boiler and machinery insurance, or equipment breakdown insurance) insures against accidental physical damage to boilers, equipment or machinery.
Builder's risk insurance insures against the risk of physical loss or damage to property during construction. Burial insurance is a very old type of life insurance which is paid out upon death to cover final expenses, such as the cost of a funeral. Business insurance can take a number of different forms, such as the various kinds of professional liability insurance, also called professional indemnity (PI), which are discussed below under that name; and the business owner's policy (BOP), which packages into one policy many of the kinds of coverage that a business owner needs, in a way analogous to how homeowners' insurance packages the coverages that a homeowner needs. Business interruption insurance covers the loss of income, and the expenses incurred, after a covered peril interrupts normal business operations. Calculable loss: There are two elements that must be at least estimable, if not formally calculable: the probability of loss, and the attendant cost.
Captive insurance companies may be defined as limited-purpose insurance companies established with the specific objective of financing risks emanating from their parent group or groups. Captives are becoming an increasingly important component of the risk management and risk financing strategy of their parent. Causa proxima, or proximate cause – the cause of loss (the peril) must be covered under the insuring agreement of the policy, and the dominant cause must not be excluded Certain life insurance contracts accumulate cash values, which may be taken by the insured if the policy is surrendered or which may be borrowed against. Claims and loss handling is the materialized utility of insurance; it is the actual "product" paid for.
Collateral protection insurance (CPI) insures property (primarily vehicles) held as collateral for loans made by lending institutions. Contribution – insurers which have similar obligations to the insured contribute in the indemnification, according to some method. Credit insurance repays some or all of a loan when certain circumstances arise to the borrower such as unemployment, disability, or death. Crime insurance is a form of casualty insurance that covers the policyholder against losses arising from the criminal acts of third parties. Crop insurance may be purchased by farmers to reduce or manage various risks associated with growing crops.
Defense Base Act (DBA) insurance provides coverage for civilian workers hired by the government to perform contracts outside the US and Canada. Definite loss: The loss takes place at a known time, in a known place, and from a known cause. Demutualization of mutual insurers to form stock companies, as well as the formation of a hybrid known as a mutual holding company, became common in some countries, such as the United States, in the late 20th century. Directors and officers liability insurance (D&O) protects an organization (usually a corporation) from costs associated with litigation resulting from errors made by directors and officers for which they are liable. Disability insurance policies provide financial support in the event of the policyholder becoming unable to work because of disabling illness or injury.
Disability overhead insurance allows business owners to cover the overhead expenses of their business while they are unable to work. Earthquake insurance is a form of property insurance that pays the policyholder in the event of an earthquake that causes damage to the property. Economic theory asserts that in a free market economy the market price reflects interaction between supply and demand: the price is set so as to equate the quantity being supplied and that being demanded. Economists sometimes define price more generally as the ratio of the quantities of goods that are exchanged for each other. Environmental liability insurance protects the insured from bodily injury, property damage and cleanup costs as a result of the dispersal, release or escape of pollutants.
Errors and omissions insurance is business liability insurance for professionals such as insurance agents, real estate agents and brokers, architects, third-party administrators (TPAs) and other business professionals. Excess line insurance companies (also known as Excess and Surplus) typically insure risks not covered by the standard lines insurance market, due to a variety of reasons (e. Expatriate insurance provides individuals and organizations operating outside of their home country with protection for automobiles, property, health, liability and business pursuits. Fidelity bond is a form of casualty insurance that covers policyholders for losses incurred as a result of fraudulent acts by specified individuals. Finally, while pricing is a topic central to a company's profitability, pricing decisions are not limited to for-profit companies.
Financial quote or sales quote, commercial statement detailing a set of products and services to be purchased in a single transaction by one party from another for a defined price For example, life insurance companies may require higher premiums or deny coverage altogether to people who work in hazardous occupations or engage in dangerous sports. For example, most insurance policies in the English language today have been carefully drafted in plain English; the industry learned the hard way that many courts will not enforce policies against insureds when the judges themselves cannot understand what the policies are saying. Formal self insurance is the deliberate decision to pay for otherwise insurable losses out of one's own money. Fraternal insurance is provided on a cooperative basis by fraternal benefit societies or other social organizations.
Gap insurance covers the excess amount on your auto loan in an instance where your insurance company does not cover the entire loan. Home insurance, also commonly called hazard insurance, or homeowners insurance (often abbreviated in the real estate industry as HOI), is the type of property insurance that covers private homes, as outlined above. If a claims adjuster suspects under-insurance, the condition of average may come into play to limit the insurance company's exposure. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. In 2010, the federal Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act established the Federal Insurance Office ("FIO").
In July, 2007, The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released a report presenting the results of a study concerning credit-based insurance scores in automobile insurance. In United States, economists and consumer advocates generally consider insurance to be worthwhile for low-probability, catastrophic losses, but not for high-probability, small losses. In determining premiums and premium rate structures, insurers consider quantifiable factors, including location, credit scores, gender, occupation, marital status, and education level. In managing the claims handling function, insurers seek to balance the elements of customer satisfaction, administrative handling expenses, and claims overpayment leakages. In many countries, such as the US and the UK, the tax law provides that the interest on this cash value is not taxable under certain circumstances.
In most countries, life and non-life insurers are subject to different regulatory regimes and different tax and accounting rules. In ordinary usage, price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for goods or services. In some sense we can say that insurance appears simultaneously with the appearance of human society. In the European Union, the Third Non-Life Directive and the Third Life Directive, both passed in 1992 and effective 1994, created a single insurance market in Europe and allowed insurance companies to offer insurance anywhere in the EU (subject to permission from authority in the head office) and allowed insurance consumers to purchase insurance from any insurer in the EU. In the US, the tax on interest income on life insurance policies and annuities is generally deferred.
In the United Kingdom, The Crown (which, for practical purposes, meant the civil service) did not insure property such as government buildings. In the United States, insurance is regulated by the states under the McCarran-Ferguson Act, with "periodic proposals for federal intervention", and a nonprofit coalition of state insurance agencies called the National Association of Insurance Commissioners works to harmonize the country's different laws and regulations. In the United States, regulation of the insurance industry primary resides with individual state insurance departments. In the United States, standard line insurance companies are insurers that have received a license or authorization from a state for the purpose of writing specific kinds of insurance in that state, such as automobile insurance or homeowners' insurance. Indemnity – the insurance company indemnifies, or compensates, the insured in the case of certain losses only up to the insured's interest.
Insurance can have various effects on society through the way that it changes who bears the cost of losses and damage. Insurance can influence the probability of losses through moral hazard, insurance fraud, and preventive steps by the insurance company. Insurance company claims departments employ a large number of claims adjusters supported by a staff of records management and data entry clerks. Insurance involves pooling funds from many insured entities (known as exposures) to pay for the losses that some may incur. Insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss.
Insurance policies can be complex and some policyholders may not understand all the fees and coverages included in a policy. Interest rate insurance protects the holder from adverse changes in interest rates, for instance for those with a variable rate loan or mortgage Inventors can now have their insurance US patent applications reviewed by the public in the Peer to Patent program. Jewish rabbinical scholars also have expressed reservations regarding insurance as an avoidance of God's will but most find it acceptable in moderation. Kidnap and ransom insurance is designed to protect individuals and corporations operating in high-risk areas around the world against the perils of kidnap, extortion, wrongful detention and hijacking.
Large loss: The size of the loss must be meaningful from the perspective of the insured. Large number of similar exposure units: Since insurance operates through pooling resources, the majority of insurance policies are provided for individual members of large classes, allowing insurers to benefit from the law of large numbers in which predicted losses are similar to the actual losses. Legal expenses insurance covers policyholders for the potential costs of legal action against an institution or an individual. Life insurance provides a monetary benefit to a decedent's family or other designated beneficiary, and may specifically provide for income to an insured person's family, burial, funeral and other final expenses. Limited risk of catastrophically large losses: Insurable losses are ideally independent and non-catastrophic, meaning that the losses do not happen all at once and individual losses are not severe enough to bankrupt the insurer; insurers may prefer to limit their exposure to a loss from a single event to some small portion of their capital base.
Livestock insurance is a specialist policy provided to, for example, commercial or hobby farms, aquariums, fish farms or any other animal holding. Lloyd's of London, pictured in 1991, is one of the world's leading and most famous insurance markets Long-term disability insurance covers an individual's expenses for the long term, up until such time as they are considered permanently disabled and thereafter. Many independent inventors are in favor of patenting new insurance products since it gives them protection from big companies when they bring their new insurance products to market. Many insurance executives are opposed to patenting insurance products because it creates a new risk for them.
Marine insurance and marine cargo insurance cover the loss or damage of vessels at sea or on inland waterways, and of cargo in transit, regardless of the method of transit. Marxists assert that value derives from the volume of socially necessary abstract labour time exerted in the creation of an object. Media liability insurance is designed to cover professionals that engage in film and television production and print, against risks such as defamation. Medical coverage, for the cost of treating injuries, rehabilitation and sometimes lost wages and funeral expenses. Mitigation - In case of any loss or casualty, the asset owner must attempt to keep the loss to a minimum, as if the asset was not insured.
Moreover, FIO monitors access to affordable insurance by traditionally underserved communities and consumers, minorities, and low- and moderate-income persons. Most countries, such as the United Kingdom, require drivers to buy some, but not all, of these coverages. Most states require that excess line insurers submit financial information, articles of incorporation, a list of officers, and other general information. Neither insurance consultants nor insurance brokers are insurance companies and no risks are transferred to them in insurance transactions. New assurance products can now be protected from copying with a business method patent in the United States.
No-fault insurance is a type of insurance policy (typically automobile insurance) where insureds are indemnified by their own insurer regardless of fault in the incident. Nuclear incident insurance covers damages resulting from an incident involving radioactive materials and is generally arranged at the national level. On July 21, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law the Nonadmitted and Reinsurance Reform Act of 2010 ("NRRA"), which took effect on July 21, 2011 and was part of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. One insight often ignored in the debates about price theory is something that businessmen are keenly aware of: in different markets, prices may not function according to the same principles except in some very abstract (and therefore not very useful) sense. Other possible forms for an insurance company include reciprocals, in which policyholders reciprocate in sharing risks, and Lloyd's organizations.
Pet insurance insures pets against accidents and illnesses; some companies cover routine/wellness care and burial, as well. Political risk insurance is a form of casualty insurance that can be taken out by businesses with operations in countries in which there is a risk that revolution or other political conditions could result in a loss. Pollution insurance usually takes the form of first-party coverage for contamination of insured property either by external or on-site sources. Price is commonly confused with the notion of cost of production, as in “I paid a high cost for buying my new plasma television”; but technically these are different concepts. Price sometimes refers to the quantity of payment requested by a seller of goods or services, rather than the eventual payment amount.
Prize indemnity insurance protects the insured from giving away a large prize at a specific event. Professional liability insurance, also called professional indemnity insurance (PI), protects insured professionals such as architectural corporations and medical practitioners against potential negligence claims made by their patients/clients. Protected self-insurance is an alternative risk financing mechanism in which an organization retains the mathematically calculated cost of risk within the organization and transfers the catastrophic risk with specific and aggregate limits to an insurer so the maximum total cost of the program is known. Public liability insurance covers a business or organization against claims should its operations injure a member of the public or damage their property in some way. Redlining is the practice of denying insurance coverage in specific geographic areas, supposedly because of a high likelihood of loss, while the alleged motivation is unlawful discrimination.
Reinsurance companies are insurance companies that sell policies to other insurance companies, allowing them to reduce their risks and protect themselves from very large losses. Reinsurance is a type of insurance purchased by insurance companies or self-insured employers to protect against unexpected losses. Simon Clarke, Marx, marginalism, and modern sociology: from Adam Smith to Max Weber (London: The Macmillan Press, Ltd, 1982). Some Christians believe insurance represents a lack of faith[46] and there is a long history of resistance to commercial insurance in Anabaptist communities (Mennonites, Amish, Hutterites, Brethren in Christ) but many participate in community-based self-insurance programs that spread risk within their communities. Some communities prefer to create virtual insurance amongst themselves by other means than contractual risk transfer, which assigns explicit numerical values to risk.
Some forms of insurance had developed in London by the early decades of the 17th century. Subrogation – the insurance company acquires legal rights to pursue recoveries on behalf of the insured; for example, the insurer may sue those liable for insured's loss. Supplemental natural disaster insurance covers specified expenses after a natural disaster renders the policyholder's home uninhabitable. The ancient Athenian "maritime loan" advanced money for voyages with repayment being cancelled if the ship was lost. The business model is to collect more in premium and investment income than is paid out in losses, and to also offer a competitive price which consumers will accept.
The financial stability and strength of an insurance company should be a major consideration when buying an insurance contract. The first insurance company in the United States underwrote fire insurance and was formed in Charles Town (modern-day Charleston), South Carolina, in 1732. The insurance industry in China was nationalized in 1949 and thereafter offered by only a single state-owned company, the People's Insurance Company of China, which was eventually suspended as demand declined in a communist environment. The last objection is also sometimes interpreted as the paradox of value, which was observed by classical economists. The most complicated aspect of the insurance business is the actuarial science of ratemaking (price-setting) of policies, which uses statistics and probability to approximate the rate of future claims based on a given risk.
The policyholder may hire their own public adjuster to negotiate the settlement with the insurance company on their behalf. The price of an item is also called the price point, especially where it refers to stores that set a limited number of price points. The purpose of registering was that whenever the person who presented the gift registered by the court was in trouble, the monarch and the court would help him. The transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer's promise to compensate (indemnify) the insured in the case of a financial (personal) loss. The types of risk that a captive can underwrite for their parents include property damage, public and product liability, professional indemnity, employee benefits, employers' liability, motor and medical aid expenses.
There are currently about 150 new patent applications on insurance inventions filed per year in the United States. There was time when people debated use-value versus exchange value, often wondering about the paradox of value (diamond-water paradox). This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. This tornado damage to an Illinois home would be considered an "Act of God" for insurance purposes Through underwriting, the process by which insurers select the risks to insure and decide how much in premiums to charge for accepting those risks;
Title insurance provides a guarantee that title to real property is vested in the purchaser and/or mortgagee, free and clear of liens or encumbrances. To "indemnify" means to make whole again, or to be reinstated to the position that one was in, to the extent possible, prior to the happening of a specified event or peril. Total permanent disability insurance provides benefits when a person is permanently disabled and can no longer work in their profession, often taken as an adjunct to life insurance. Travel insurance is an insurance cover taken by those who travel abroad, which covers certain losses such as medical expenses, loss of personal belongings, travel delay, and personal liabilities. Under the same situation, a "pay on behalf" policy, the insurance carrier would pay the claim and the insured (the homeowner in the above example) would not be out of pocket for anything.
Upon termination of a given policy, the amount of premium collected and the investment gains thereon, minus the amount paid out in claims, is the insurer's underwriting profit on that policy. Use–mention distinction and quasi-quotation, the philosophical distinction between mentioning a word and using it to denote a thing or idea Utmost good faith – the insured and the insurer are bound by a good faith bond of honesty and fairness. What is often missing from the debate is that prohibiting the use of legitimate, actuarially sound factors means that an insufficient amount is being charged for a given risk, and there is thus a deficit in the system. When a commodity is for sale at multiple locations, the Law of one price is generally believed to hold.
When insured parties experience a loss for a specified peril, the coverage entitles the policyholder to make a claim against the insurer for the covered amount of loss as specified by the policy. Whereas insurance markets have become centralized nationally and internationally, state insurance commissioners operate individually, though at times in concert through the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. Windstorm insurance is an insurance covering the damage that can be caused by wind events such as hurricanes. Without denying the applicability of the Austrian theory of value as subjective only, within certain contexts of price behavior, the Polish economist Oskar Lange felt it was necessary to attempt a serious integration of the insights of classical political economy with neo-classical economics. Workers' compensation insurance replaces all or part of a worker's wages lost and accompanying medical expenses incurred because of a job-related injury.
[13] Chinese merchants travelling treacherous river rapids would redistribute their wares across many vessels to limit the loss due to any single vessel's capsizing. [16] Toward the end of the seventeenth century, London's growing importance as a centre for trade increased demand for marine insurance. [19] Congress adopted the McCarran-Ferguson Act in 1945, which declared that states should regulate the business of insurance and to affirm that the continued regulation of the insurance industry by the states is in the public's best interest. [19] The Financial Modernization Act of 1999, commonly referred to as "Gramm-Leach-Bliley", established a comprehensive framework to authorize affiliations between banks, securities firms, and insurers, and once again acknowledged that states should regulate insurance. [20] FIO coordinates and develops federal policy on prudential aspects of international insurance matters, including representing the U.
[27] Generally, when an excess line insurer writes a policy, it must, pursuant to state laws, provide disclosure to the policyholder that the policyholder's policy is being written by an excess line insurer. [27] Non-admitted insurers are generally not licensed or authorized in the states in which they write business, although they must be licensed or authorized in the state in which they are domiciled. [27] These companies have more flexibility and can react faster than standard line insurance companies because they are not required to file rates and forms. [27] These insurers also are required to contribute to state guarantee funds, which are used to pay for losses if an insurer becomes insolvent. [27] They also may not write insurance that is typically available in the admitted market, do not participate in state guarantee funds (and therefore policyholders do not have any recourse through these funds if an insurer becomes insolvent and cannot pay claims), may pay higher taxes, only may write coverage for a risk if it has been rejected by three different admitted insurers, and only when the insurance producer placing the business has a surplus lines license.
[30] The National Conference of Insurance Legislators (NCOIL) also works to harmonize the different state laws. [35] This is associated with reduced purchasing of insurance against low-probability losses, and may result in increased inefficiencies from moral hazard. [37] The report was disputed by representatives of the Consumer Federation of America, the National Fair Housing Alliance, the National Consumer Law Center, and the Center for Economic Justice, for relying on data provided by the insurance industry. [6] Insurers attempt to address carelessness through inspections, policy provisions requiring certain types of maintenance, and possible discounts for loss mitigation efforts. [citation needed] Another example is the legal infrastructure which allows life insurance to be held in an irrevocable trust which is used to pay an estate tax while the proceeds themselves are immune from the estate tax.
[citation needed] That is, some insurance products or practices are useful primarily because of legal benefits, such as reducing taxes, as opposed to providing protection against risks of adverse events. [citation needed] The failure to address the deficit may mean insolvency and hardship for all of a company's insureds. [citation needed] The options for addressing the deficit seem to be the following: Charge the deficit to the other policyholders or charge it to the government (i. ^ "And whereas I have left in the hands of Doctor Ducke Channcellor of London two pollicies of insurance the one of one hundred pounds for the safe arivall of our Shipp in Guiana which is in mine owne name, if we miscarry by the waie (which God forbid) I bequeath the advantage thereof to my said Cosin Thomas Muchell. ^ "Islam Question and Answer - The true nature of insurance and the rulings concerning it".
^ This discussion is adapted from Mehr and Camack “Principles of Insurance”, 6th edition, 1976, pp 34 – 37. ^ US application 20,060,287,896  “Method for providing crop insurance for a crop associated with a defined attribute” whereas there is an other insurance of one hundred pounds assured by the said Doctor Arthur Ducke on my life for one yeare if I chance to die within that tyme I entreat the said doctor Ducke to make it over to the said Thomas Muchell his kinsman.