About alcohol rehab centers - alcohol_rehab_centers
"Determination of low molecular weight alcohols including fusel oil in various samples by diethyl ether extraction and capillary gas chromatography".
(However, the fermenting agent is a bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum, that feeds on cellulose, not sugars like the Saccharomyces yeast that produces ethanol.
Alcohol dehydrogenase has a higher affinity for ethanol, thus preventing methanol from binding and acting as a substrate.
Alcohols are classified into primary, secondary (sec), and tertiary (tert), based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl group.
Alcohols of five or more carbons (pentanol and higher) are effectively insoluble in water because of the hydrocarbon chain's dominance.
Bartholomew Traheron in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" (Moorish) authors for "fine powder":
Because ethanol impairs judgment in humans, it can be a catalyst for reckless or irresponsible behavior.
Because of its relatively low toxicity compared with other alcohols and ability to dissolve non-polar substances, ethanol can be used as a solvent in medical drugs, perfumes, and vegetable essences such as vanilla.
But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix.
Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble because of a balance between the two trends.
By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine", the distilled essence of wine.
Depending upon the dose and the regularity of its consumption, ethanol can cause acute respiratory failure or death.
Electron-withdrawing groups attached to the carbon containing the hydroxyl group will serve to stabilize the alkoxide when formed, thus resulting in greater acidity.
Esters may also be prepared by reaction of the alcohol with an acid chloride in the presence of a base such as pyridine.
Ethanol has been produced and consumed by humans for millennia, in the form of fermented and distilled alcoholic beverages.
Ethanol in this form is known generally as denatured alcohol; when methanol is used, it may be referred to as methylated spirits or "surgical spirits".
Ethanol-based soaps are becoming common in restaurants and are convenient because they do not require drying due to the volatility of the compound.
Ethchlorvynol is a good example of a tertiary alcohol which saw both medicinal and recreational use.
For example, isopropyl alcohol is occasionally called sec-propyl alcohol, and the tertiary alcohol (CH3)3COH, or 2-methylpropan-2-ol in IUPAC nomenclature is commonly known as tert-butyl alcohol or tert-butanol.
For instance, such a process might proceed by the conversion of sucrose by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructose, then the conversion of glucose by the enzyme zymase into ethanol (and carbon dioxide).
For instance, tertiary alcohols react with hydrochloric acid to produce tertiary alkyl halides, where the hydroxyl group is replaced by a chlorine atom by unimolecular nucleophilic substitution.
Fuel performance can be increased in forced induction internal combustion engines by injecting alcohol into the air intake after the turbocharger or supercharger has pressurized the air.
However, if the oxygen is first protonated to give R−OH2+, the leaving group (water) is much more stable, and the nucleophilic substitution can take place.
If a higher priority group is present (such as an aldehyde, ketone, or carboxylic acid), then it is necessary to use the prefix "hydroxy", for example: 1-hydroxy-2-propanone (CH3COCH2OH).
If primary or secondary alcohols are to be reacted with hydrochloric acid, an activator such as zinc chloride is needed.
In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.
In the US and some other countries, because of legal and tax restrictions on alcohol consumption, ethanol destined for other uses often contains additives that make it unpalatable (such as denatonium benzoate) or poisonous (such as methanol).
It can be found in low densities in star and planetary system forming regions of space.
It is a clear liquid resembling ethanol in smell and properties, with a slightly lower boiling point (64.
It is found in beverages for adults, as fuel, and also has many scientific, medical, and industrial uses.
Johnson (1657) glosses alcohol vini as quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat.
Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association 25 (2): 116–20.
Methanol (wood alcohol), for instance, is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to the poisonous formic acid in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes, respectively; accumulation of formic acid can lead to blindness or death.
Of those, ethanol (C2H5OH) is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, and in common speech the word alcohol refers specifically to ethanol.
On the other hand, the presence of electron-donating group will result in a less stable alkoxide ion formed.
Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the 1st or 2nd carbon on the propane chain.
Some consumers of some commercially prepared products may view alcohol as an undesirable ingredient, particularly in products intended for children.
Some longer-chain alcohols such as n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol and t-butanol do, however, have stronger sedative effects, but also have higher toxicity than ethanol.
Tertiary alcohols eliminate easily at just above room temperature, but primary alcohols require a higher temperature.
The consumption of large doses of ethanol causes drunkenness (intoxication), which may lead to a hangover as its effects wear off.
The deprotonation reaction to produce an alkoxide salt is performed either with a strong base such as sodium hydride or n-butyllithium or with sodium or potassium metal.
The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids can be carried out using potassium permanganate or the Jones reagent.
The lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen of the hydroxyl group also makes alcohols nucleophiles.
The prefixes sec- (or s-) and tert- (or t-), conventionally in italics, may be used before the alkyl group's name to distinguish secondary and tertiary alcohols, respectively, from the primary one.
The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH; secondary ones are RR'CHOH; and tertiary ones are RR'R"COH, where R, R', and R" stand for alkyl groups.
The reaction, in general, obeys Zaitsev's Rule, which states that the most stable (usually the most substituted) alkene is formed.
The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the IUPAC name.
The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol.
The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" (the chemical known today as ethanol) in the 18th century, and was extended to the class of substances so-called as "alcohols" in modern chemistry, after 1850.
These alcohols are called fusel alcohols or fusel oils in brewing and tend to have a spicy or peppery flavor.
They can react to form ester compounds, and they can (if activated first) undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions.
This cools the pressurized air, providing a denser air charge, which allows for more fuel, and therefore more power.
This makes them more suitable for recreational and medicinal use as the chronic harms are lower.
This metabolic reaction produces ethanol as a waste product, just like aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide and water.
This will result in a scenario whereby the unstable alkoxide ion formed will tend to accept a proton to reform the original alcohol.
Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to other compounds (except in certain large molecules where the hydroxyl is protected by steric hindrance of adjacent groups).
Thus, methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water because the hydroxyl group wins out over the short carbon chain.
Two opposing solubility trends in alcohols are: the tendency of the polar OH to promote solubility in water, and the tendency of the carbon chain to resist it.
Unlike ethanol, methanol is extremely toxic: As little as 10 ml can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve and 30 ml (one fluid ounce) is potentially fatal.
With a pKa of around 16-19, they are, in general, slightly weaker acids than water, but they are still able to react with strong bases such as sodium hydride or reactive metals such as sodium.
) Saccharomyces yeast are known to produce these higher alcohols at temperatures above 75 °F (24 °C).
29 °C, compared to 69 °C for the hydrocarbon hexane (a common constituent of gasoline), and 34.
4 °C, which is used as an industrial solvent, car fuel, and raw material in the chemical industry.
A 50% v/v (by volume) solution of ethylene glycol in water is commonly used as an antifreeze.
Acetyl · Acetoxy · Acryloyl · Acyl · Alcohol · Aldehyde · Alkane · Alkene · Alkyne · Alkoxy group · Amide · Amine · Azo compound · Benzene derivative · Carbene · Carbonyl · Carboxylic acid · Cyanate · Disulfide · Ester · Ether · Epoxide · Haloalkane · Hydrazone · Hydroxyl · Imide · Imine · Isocyanate · Isonitrile · Isothiocyanate · Ketone · Methyl · Methylene · Methine · Nitrile · Nitro compound · Nitroso compound · Organophosphorus · Oxime · Peroxide · Phosphonous and Phosphonic acid · Pyridine derivative · Sulfone · Sulfonic acid · Sulfoxide · Thiocyanate · Thioester · Thioether · Thiol · Urea
Alcohol is often used as a preservative for specimens in the fields of science and medicine.
Alcoholic beverages, typically containing 5% to 40% ethanol by volume, have been produced and consumed by humans since pre-historic times.
Alcohols are themselves nucleophilic, so R−OH2+ can react with ROH to produce ethers and water in a dehydration reaction, although this reaction is rarely used except in the manufacture of diethyl ether.
Alcohols can also undergo oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones, or carboxylic acids, or they can be dehydrated to alkenes.
Alcohols have an odor that is often described as “biting” and as “hanging” in the nasal passages.
Alcohols may, likewise, be converted to alkyl bromides using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus tribromide, for example:
Aldehydes or ketones are reduced with sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride (after an acidic workup).
Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed hydration reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst that gives usually secondary or tertiary alcohols.
An important class of alcohols are the simple acyclic alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+1OH.
As one moves from primary to secondary to tertiary alcohols with the same backbone, the hydrogen bond strength, the boiling point, and the acidity typically decrease.
Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers.
By direct hydration using ethylene (ethylene hydration) or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil.
By fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast and temperature of less than 37 °C to produce ethanol.
Ethanol can be used as an antiseptic to disinfect the skin before injections are given, often along with iodine.
Ethanol in alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons.
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In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom.
In order to drive the equilibrium to the right and produce a good yield of ester, water is usually removed, either by an excess of H2SO4 or by using a Dean-Stark apparatus.
In the Barton-McCombie deoxygenation an alcohol is deoxygenated to an alkane with tributyltin hydride or a trimethylborane-water complex in a radical substitution reaction.
In the IUPAC system, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal "e" and adds "ol", e.
Meanwhile, the oxygen atom has lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it weakly basic in the presence of strong acids such as sulfuric acid.
Other alcohols are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to be metabolized and partly because their metabolism produces substances that are even more toxic.
Other alcohols are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or wood alcohol (methyl alcohol, or methanol).
Other types of ester are prepared in a similar manner — for example, tosyl (tosylate) esters are made by reaction of the alcohol with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in pyridine.
Primary alcohols (R-CH2-OH) can be oxidized either to aldehydes (R-CHO) or to carboxylic acids (R-CO2H), while the oxidation of secondary alcohols (R1R2CH-OH) normally terminates at the ketone (R1R2C=O) stage.
Primary alkyl halides react with aqueous NaOH or KOH mainly to primary alcohols in nucleophilic aliphatic substitution.
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Reagents useful for the transformation of primary alcohols to aldehydes are normally also suitable for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones.
Rehabilitation (neuropsychology), therapy aimed at improving neurocognitive function that has been lost or diminished by disease or traumatic injury
Several of the benign bacteria[which?] in the intestine use fermentation as a form of anaerobic metabolism.
Simple alcohols, in particular, ethanol and methanol, possess denaturing and inert rendering properties, leading to their use as anti-microbial agents in medicine, pharmacy, and industry.
Some secondary and tertiary alcohols are less poisonous than ethanol because the liver is unable to metabolise them into these toxic by-products.
The IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important.
The OH group is not a good leaving group in nucleophilic substitution reactions, so neutral alcohols do not react in such reactions.
The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids normally proceeds via the corresponding aldehyde, which is transformed via an aldehyde hydrate (R-CH(OH)2) by reaction with water before it can be further oxidized to the carboxylic acid.
The first alcohol (today known as ethyl alcohol) was discovered by the tenth-century Persian alchemist al-Razi.
The simplest alcohol is methanol, CH3OH, which was formerly obtained by the distillation of wood and, therefore, is called "wood alcohol".
The word alcohol appears in English, as a term for a very fine powder, in the 16th century, loaned via French from medical Latin, ultimately from the Arabic الكحل (al-kuḥl, "the kohl, a powder used as an eyeliner").
To form an ester from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid the reaction, known as Fischer esterification, is usually performed at reflux with a catalyst of concentrated sulfuric acid:
Two other alcohols whose uses are relatively widespread (though not so much as those of methanol and ethanol) are propanol and butanol.
Water is similar in pKa to many alcohols, so with sodium hydroxide there is an equilibrium set-up, which usually lies to the left:
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 All primary alcohols are broken down into aldehydes then to carboxylic acids, and whose toxicities are similar to acetaldehyde and acetic acid.
 Likewise, poisoning due to other alcohols such as ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol are due to their metabolites, which are also produced by alcohol dehydrogenase.
 An effective treatment to prevent toxicity after methanol or ethylene glycol ingestion is to administer ethanol.
 These longer chain alcohols are found as contaminants in some alcoholic beverages and are known as fusel alcohols, and are reputed to cause severe hangovers although it is unclear if the fusel alcohols are actually responsible.
 Many longer chain alcohols are used in industry as solvents and are occasionally abused by alcoholics, leading to a range of adverse health effects.
 When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the "ol": propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CH(OH)CH3.
^ McKee M, Suzcs S, Sárváry A, Adany R, Kiryanov N, Saburova L, Tomkins S, Andreev E et al.
kuḥl (kohl) was originally the name given to the very fine powder, produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony sulfide Sb2S3 (hence the essence or "spirit" of the substance), which was used as an antiseptic, eyeliner and cosmetic (see kohl (cosmetics) for information on this).
the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or (as I fynde it sometymes wryten) alcofoll, for moost fine poudre.