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Categories: Alcohol lawCrimesDrunk drivingVehicle lawHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from April 2010All articles needing additional references
BAC is most conveniently measured as a simple percent of alcohol in the blood by weight.
However, 100 milliliters of blood weighs essentially the same as 100 milliliters of water, which weighs precisely 100 grams.
In most countries, anyone who is convicted of injuring or killing someone while under the influence of alcohol or drugs can be heavily fined, as in France, in addition to being given a lengthy prison sentence.
In some it is illegal for an open container of an alcoholic beverage to be in the passenger compartment of a motor vehicle or in some specific area of that compartment.
In some it may be illegal to be asleep in the driver's seat of a vehicle without any intention to drive.
In some jurisdictions there are separate charges depending on the vehicle used, such as BWI (bicycling while intoxicated), which may carry a lighter sentence.
In some jurisdictions, there is an aggravated category of the offense at a higher level e.
Limits for chemical tests are specific for blood alcohol concentration or concentration of alcohol in breath.
Many such laws apply also to boating, piloting aircraft, or cycling, possibly with different BAC level than driving.
Similar regulations cover driving or operating certain types of machinery while affected by drinking alcohol or taking other drugs.
Some jurisdictions have multiple levels of BAC, for example the state of California has a 0.
The Medical Psychological Assessment (MPA) works for a prognosis of the fitness for drive in future, has an interdisciplinary basic approach and offers the chance of individual rehabilitation to the offender.
The US Department of Transportation explains the Field Sobriety Test as, "a battery of three tests administered and evaluated in a standardized manner to obtain validated indicators of impairment and establish probable cause for arrest.
The officer must correctly perform the Field Sobriety Tests (FSTs) that are approved by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA).
The per mille (promille) measurement, which is equal to ten times the percentage value, is used in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
Thus, for all practical purposes, this is the same as the simple dimensionless BAC measured as a percent.
and provinces in Canada have adopted truth in sentencing laws that enforce strict guidelines on sentencing, differing from previous practice where prison time was reduced or suspended after sentencing had been issued.
" Starting with the introduction in Norway in 1936 of the world’s first per se law which made it an offense to drive with more than a specified amount of alcohol in the body, objective chemical tests have gradually supplanted the earlier purely judgmental ones.
01% for those younger than 21 years of age and those on probation for a previous DUI conviction.
08% defines the offense, with no need to prove impairment or being under the influence of alcohol.
Attorney (England and Wales), a person, who may be but is not necessarily a lawyer, who is authorised to act on someone else's behalf in either a business or a personal matter
Attorney-in-fact, a person authorised to act on someone else's behalf in a legal or business matter by a power of attorney
Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while intoxicated (DWI), drunken driving, drunk driving, operating under the influence, drinking and driving, or impaired driving is the act of driving a motor vehicle with blood levels of alcohol in excess of a legal limit.
George Smith, a London taxi driver, was the first person to be convicted of drunk driving, on 10 September 1897.
Historically, guilt was established by observed driving symptoms, such as weaving; administering field sobriety tests, such as a walking a straight line heel-to-toe or standing on one leg for 30 seconds; and the arresting officer's subjective opinion of impairment.
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In most jurisdictions a measurement such as a blood alcohol content (BAC) in excess of a specific threshold level, such as 0.
In the United States, local law enforcement agencies made 1,467,300 arrests nationwide for driving under the influence of alcohol in 1996, compared to 1.
The German model serves to reduce the number of accidents by identifying unfit drivers and removing them from traffic until their fitness to drive has been established again.
The laws relating to drunk driving vary between countries and varying blood alcohol content is allowed before a conviction is made.
The specific criminal offense may be called, depending on the jurisdiction, driving under the influence [of alcohol or other drugs] (DUI), driving under intense influence (DUII), driving while intoxicated (DWI), "operating under the influence" (OUI) operating while intoxicated (OWI), operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated (OMVI), driving under the combined influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, driving under the influence per se or drunk in charge [of a vehicle].
The validity of the testing equipment/methods and mathematical relationships for the measurement of breath and blood alcohol have been criticized.
With the advent of a scientific test for blood alcohol content (BAC), enforcement regimes moved to pinning culpability for the offense to strict liability based on driving while having more than a prescribed amount of blood alcohol, although this does not preclude the simultaneous existence of the older subjective tests.
Within the American system, citation for driving under the influence also causes a major spike in car insurance premiums -- 94.
 In 1997 an estimated 513,200 DWI offenders were in prison or jail, down from 593,000 in 1990 and up from 270,100 in 1986.
^ Four in Ten Criminal Offenders Report Alcohol as a Factor in Violence: But Alcohol-Related Deaths and Consumption in Decline, April 5, 1998, United States Bureau of Justice Statistics.